- Time Dilation and the Spatial Interval for which dx/dt is Speed (1988) [Updated 6 years ago]
- Work Done on Photons During Refraction: Improved Symmetry From a More Consistent Expression for Photon Energy (1988) [Updated 6 years ago]

- Time Dilation and the Spatial Interval for which dx/dt is Speed (1988) [Updated 6 years ago]
The principle of relativity requires that the speed vA, B of A with respect to B be the same as the speed vA, B of B with respect to A for all ordered pairs A, B. It also requires that the interval x used to calculate dx/dt = vA, B be defined for a particular experiment by resting endpoints. The rest frame of the endpoints is preferred for the experiment in that only the Lorentz contraction of x applies to dx/dt = vA, B = vB, A. Consequently, relativistic time dilation is asymmetrical, the clocks in the frame of x running faster than the clocks in a moving frame for all observers. This is analogous to the way in which the zero-momentum frame must be used to predict the outcome of dynamic particle experiments. In general, the principle of relativity does not say that for a given experiment E there is no preferred frame R(E). Rather, it states that there is no one preferred frame R for all E; that is, no absolute frame.

- Work Done on Photons During Refraction: Improved Symmetry From a More Consistent Expression for Photon Energy (1988) [Updated 6 years ago]
*By*E = mc^{ }direct substitution from^{2}*and*= h(mv)^{−1},*energy becomes*E = hc^{2}(v)^{−1}.*This*, v = c.^{ }reduces to Planck's equation if, and only if*It*E = hc^{ }follows from Snell's law that a photon undergoing refraction will^{ }gain energy^{2}[(v)^{−1}− (_{0}C)^{−1}],*where*_{0}*is its wavelength*in vacuo.^{ }*This very small energy gain arises from work done on*c^{ }the photon's mass by the refracting medium in decelerating the^{ }photon from*to*v.*The medium therefore looses internal*c.^{ }energy while the photon is passing through, regaining it when^{ }the photon leaves to resume speed*Photon momentum is*, p = hc(^{ }a linear, monotone-increasing function of speed_{0}v)^{−1}.*The reason photons*(v = 0)^{ }do not have rest mass is because they cannot rest^{ }in space*for the same reason massive particles cannot*(v = c):^{ }rest in time*In either case the energy would*^{ }be infinite. EPR-type paradoxes can be resolved by replacing the^{ }notion of self-interference with recognition of the fact that_{x}^{ }*is the extent of the*x-*axis that is instantaneously occupied*.^{ }by a particle