Previous work defending the thesis that all physical phenomena may be explained in terms of Coulomb's law and Newton's universal law of gravitation is reviewed. In sum, matter is described as gradient fields of charge and mass inextricably connected in the proton and electron. Energy is described as mathematical constructs defining relative positions of charge and mass. Coulomb chain reactions are considered necessary and sufficient to explain electromagnetic phenomena. Particular attention is paid in this paper to the implications of this view on Special Relativity Theory.
Inferences drawn from Einstein's theories are counterintuitive. Justifications for the theories are hand-wavy at best. Newton's law of gravitation and Coulomb's force law for electrostatics provide explanations for experimental "proof" of Einstein's theories that is not only less exotic, but a natural consequence of the inertial and electrostatic properties believed to be possessed by protons and electrons.
"Lift where you stand" is a popular American idiom that means, in essence, that one does not have to travel to exotic parts of the world to do good. Applied to space travel for its convenient pun, it could mean any number of things. First and foremost is the assertion that breakthroughs in astronautical engineering are most likely to occur by building on existing technology, one step at a time. It could also mean that discoveries leading to important next steps could be as far away as our own garages.
Perhaps the most obvious concept for electric space launch should involve the sequencing of solenoid pulses to speed up a craft. However, solenoid launchers are not getting much attention for research and development from the aerospace industry.
The feasibility of the numerous schemes for alternatives to jet propulsion for space missions (space towers, tethers, sails) presented in Bolonkin?s Non-Rocket Space Launch and Propulsion is given a second look.
Some unusual methods of generating light, like all others, are explained in terms of accelerating charges. Electron de-excitations may be the only source of visible light.
The physical universe consists solely of nucleons with unit charge and mass inextricably connected. Electromagnetic radiation is hypothesized to be a natural consequence of charge obeying Coulomb's Law and mass obeying Newton's Law of gravitation. This is equivalent to saying that the net distribution of charge in the universe is constant and momentum is conserved.
Electric Spacecraft, Inc. has begun production of the Electro Wand ? a simple, inexpensive, fun physics tool teachers can use to demonstrate electrostatic principles in the classroom. The Electro Wand is an educational toy which excites thoughtful, curious minds. Amateur scientists, physicists and engineers even enjoy experimenting with it in the lab, entertaining fancies of electric propulsion.
The facilities at Electric Spacecraft, Inc. (ESI) were established to support individual research efforts toward developing an efficient means of electrodynamic propulsion. Its conference area, private library, laboratory and workshop are available to ESJ networkers, individuals and small groups who wish to collaborate on high-voltage electrodynamics, vacuum phenomena and plasma dynamics research.
Manufacturers of silicon wafers have long been annoyed by the dust that settles out of plasma chambers. Physicists, on the other hand, have been trying to generate dusty plasmas to simulate astronomical phenomena. The recent discovery of how dusty plasmas form helped both science and industry.
Ordinarily, the wavelength of radiation will be increased upon reflection from a receding surface. An electrical circuit has been constructed in which RF generated by a disturbance reflects off the receding disturbance with a shorter wavelength. Following this sleight of hand requires keeping track of the phase and group velocities.
An experiment claiming to have measured the speed of gravity brings public attention to an ongoing debate.
Monstein and Wesley believed that derivations from Maxwell?s equations required the existence of scalar electrodynamic waves. To test for a longitudinal component of an oscillating electric field, they constructed a mechanical polarizer and measured its ability to affect signal absorption. They observed that the signal was efficiently blocked when the polarizing rods were parallel to the direction of propagation, and practically unaffected when it was perpendicular. To see if this longitudinally-propagated component was a wave, they tested it for adherence to the inverse-square law and the law of reflection. The case for the former law was persuasive, and the latter looks hopeful, but requires experimental refinements.
Lightning storms and aurorae are evidence of electricity in the atmosphere. Electrodynamic phenomena, however, are constantly acting in earth?s atmosphere, and throughout the cosmos. Magnetic fields from dynamos of uncertain mechanism, acting beneath the surfaces of stars and planets, entrain the vast quantities of charged particles which permeate space. The paths of these particles are complexified by currents set up by their motion, and in opposition to their motion; as well as the rotations and revolutions of heavenly bodies with respect to each other. Fluctuating patterns emerge as superimposed fields establish equilibrium with each other. Much of the current theory about the shells within shells of interactive electromagnetic fields in the galaxy has been inferred from broadband spectral observations and particle counts taken on space missions. Working from the terrestrial surface toward the outer reaches of the galaxy, this special issue of the Electric Spacecraft Journal will present an overview of the earth?s large-scale electrodynamic environment as it is currently understood.
Newton?s laws describe how masses exert forces on each other. Forgetting that mass and charge are inextricably connected, many rocket scientists maintain that the only hope for electric propulsion will involve some form of reaction mass ? as with in jets. Microbiologists however, have for years been observing several classes of motions induced by coulomb forces. [Erratum: This is non sequitur. Charge may move mass, but reaction mass will always conserve momentum.] The different motions are distinguished by the ionization processes involved and the type of motion resulting. An illustrated summary of the forces discussed in this paper appears on the back cover.
All physical phenomena are explained in terms of particles reestablishing equilibrium in accordance with Newton?s law of gravitation and Coulomb?s force law. In other words, the overall rate of expansion of the universe is constant, and the net distribution of universal charge is constant. Energy exists by virtue of disturbances requiring the rest of the universe to compensate for a local rearrangement of charge or mass. Energy, in any form, has no substance, per se. Field lines, energy rays, and other devices traditionally contrived to simplify conceptualizations are dismissed as only complicating perceptions.
The Force Field Propulsion Physics eGroup is a website in which individuals can discuss and critique ideas about space-time, atomic structure and EM propulsion. It tends to be dominated by a small group of personalities, but in fact is open to anyone granted a registration pass. It has split into two factions (eGroup and Greenglow), reformed into one, and split again. It is primarily a British site, but has international contributors. We have extracted some of this collection from hundreds of pages. The eGroup website is www.egroups.com/group/forcefieldpropulsionphysics/.
Light is enigmatic. Those who have seriously contemplated its fundamental nature are of a variety of opinions. In ESJ 27, Kulba suggested that light, arising from excitations and de-excitations of electrons, differed only in scale from radio waves emanating from a dipole antenna. It was further proposed that the aether was nothing more than the combination of all fields set up by the relative positions of all charges in the universe. Kulba shared these ideas with a handful of knowledgeable scientists, and the thought-provoking feedback they provided is the basis of this forum.
Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is the process by which neutrons are reproduced in a plasma. Tabletop IEC devices, informally referred to as fusors, were first operated in the 1950s. (See ?Fusors,? by Richard Hull on pages 6-12.) More recently, conceptual design studies, undertaken at the Universities of Illinois and Wisconsin, explored the potential for IEC applied to large-scale power generation and space propulsion. This is a brief review of an article sent to ESJ by the author, George Miley.
The conventional depiction of light as a transverse wave is misleading. A series of gedanken experiments has led to the conclusion that light propagates as other waves, as three-dimensional wave fronts through a supporting medium. This view of light might eliminate many epicycles in modern physics.
T. T. Brown researched electricity generated from rocks, concluding that it was spontaneous, everlasting and affected only by diurnal cycles and the proximity of rocks of a similar constitution. The conclusions were based on observations taken for entire years in various parts of the US.
The following summarizes ideas presented by Peter Graneau at the Northeast Regional Meeting of the Natural Philosophy Alliance at the University of Connecticut ? Storrs. Sign conventions for energy and forces in electrostatics and electrodynamics present paradoxes which may be resolved with minor changes to classical perspectives.
The production of neutrons seems to be occurring in special vacuum tube designs known as fusors. The phenomenon is reminiscent of work done earlier by Tesla and Farnsworth. Tom Ligon has described and demonstrated recent work with fusors which is attributable to Dr. R. W. Bussard.
The 25th meeting of the Electrostatics Society of America was held at the University of Georgia, Athens, June 29 - July 2, 1997. Talks were varied, dealing with the role of electrostatics in such applications as the routine of the honeybee, reducing dust in chicken coops, manufacturing textiles, improving spraying devices, and removing pollutants from clay soils. Classical curiosities, breakthrough technologies, anomalous phenomena, and speculations were all presented to an inquisitive and critical audience. Some highlights follow.
Don Kelly has measured the falling times of flat plates containing various arrangements of magnets. His results indicated that magnetic plates fall mores slowly than nonmagnetic plates. This is a summary by ESJ of the magnet drop experiment results provided by Don Kelly.
R. Steven Hall, assisted by Leslee Kulba, performed a series of experiments that would allow direct observations of electrostatic forces. These included levitations, spinning tops, inflation forces and the measurement of ion charge collection on an antenna.
As the field of electrostatics reopens in the search for a mechanism for large-scale electric propulsion, questions arise which go beyond the scope of undergraduate curricula. Sometimes phenomena are observed which appear to contradict conventional theory. It is therefore necessary to reexamine accepted interpretations and applications of fundamental notions for consistency. This paper examines two constants of proportionality, e and m, from a philosophical basis; addressing their derivation, arbitrary nature, physical properties, and coincidental interconnectedness with each other and other constants. Examination of the principles underlying elementary physics reveals that, although the science is a great tool for accounting for physical changes, the physical essence of what is really happening is still unknown.
With the ESJ Forum, we present differing views on a selected topic. The contributors are often far more knowledgeable about the subject than we are at ESJ. But, even the most knowledgeable have different opinions, and we expect the forum to generate much critical argument. It is our hope that by including such diverse views, we will facilitate interactive learning and understanding. In this issue, the discussion centers on commentary about electromagnetics that was sparked by ESJ 18.
ESJ continues to network with Princeton?s Electric Propulsion Laboratory, and has received copies of three more progress reports. The reports, covering research conducted between March and August of 1993, include papers on further MPD thruster investigations, charges on spray droplets and plasma propulsion spectra. This article consists of annotated abridgements of the two May/June articles.
This article describes the energy required to reach earth's escape velocity. A simple analysis is given, ignoring the many losses and complications that accompany the present state of technology.