Motion of all kinds is understood in structural analytics as deploying and condensing electromagnetic plenum waves. The structural relationship between boson and fermion motion is explained.
The Uncertainty Principle is a conclusion determined by the method of analysis, i.e., by the mathematics. Nature however is not constrained by the mathematics of quantum mechanics (QM). Instead of pursuing a QM reductionist approach to reality, as does physics, Field Structure Theory (FST) begins by studying form as the product of field force rather than in terms of an object in a field. There is a huge analytical difference between viewing natural processes from a field perspective as opposed to the perspective of a field object (particles) producing the field. FST starts with the whole and derives the particular. It is the ?something comes from everything? approach as opposed to the ?something comes from the nothing? approach. With a discrete form (the loop) and a deterministic set of axiomatic principles, structural physics (FST) can build with a form that has proven itself to have inexhaustible structural potential to delineate the natural complexity. FST finds determinism at every structural platform of reality from smallest to largest.
As the forms and structure of matter becomes smaller, the more wavelike its behavior became until the distinctions between particle and wave became uncertain. To deal with this the particle/wave ambiguities, the mathematics of uncertainty was developed and this became known as the Uncertainty Principle. The error has been in assuming that what we think that what happens structurally at our mencroscale, which is some 1045 powers larger than the fundamental scale of reality, is what is happening throughout all scales of reality. Last year at the NPA-18 conference I outlined the problem as being the result of our inability to understand structure and its relationship to form in a paper titled, ?The Meaning of Structure?.
Field Structure Theory (FST) working in the mencroscale discovered a topology (Structural Skew Topology ? SST) that could be applied to all scales of structure. FST does this by delineating form and structure using only loops of action. Because form and structure are fractal in nature, they are scalable. This allows mencroscale forms to be replicated at larger or smaller scales. Once a way to delineate how action becomes energy and the energy interacts to build form, momentum and position can be known simultaneously. FST reveals what a multiple certainty looks like, how fields produce multiple certainties, and how matter is not localized as it appears to be in a field. Multiple Certainties postulates that at the quantum scale both position and momentum can be known concurrently by recognizing that where something is, is determined by knowing the number of loops in the quantum system and the number of places the loops interact in the field. This can be known by building the model knowing only the frequency of the form and Planck's constant. Applying fieldstructure formalism to spectral analysis, it can then be understood that depending on its energy, a particle has a discrete number of places it can be found and where those places are within the field.
Field Structure Theory (FST) postulates a plenum composed of chiral loops that when brought together properly weave loops of action together to form waves of energy. To tell the story of the neutron, it is necessary to show how a neutron arises from wave energy in the plenum. FST shows how waves arise, interact to form particles, atoms, molecules and etc. Form and structure in nature can be shown to be fractal hierarchical iterations that follow simple rules of loop association to produce the platforms of reality, i.e., wave, particle, atom, molecule, etc. With chiral loops of action that interact to become chiral energy loops, that interact to become bound stand-alone three-dimensional particles, the neutron is seen as the seventh iteration of this fractal hierarchy. FST further shows that the neutron is made from plenum field energy before the proton and electron are made. The proton and electron arise when the neutron deploys its energy, in a process ill-named as ?decay?. When the neutron deploys (decays) at or near absolute zero temperature, the kinetic energy of the electron is sufficiently low as to allow the proton to capture it and form hydrogen. This should be laboratory testable. This could only occur in a sun and indicates the core of the sun is at or near absolute zero. This process cannot be shown or justified within the limitations of the Standard Model but can be by considering the structural mechanisms of Field Structure Theory and the topological mechanics of Structural Skew Topology. What is not being told in this story is the mechanics of how loops are made to interact to produce the particles. This information is proprietary. What is being shown are the beginning states and end-states, but not the transitional states of the chiral energy rings.
Premise: The origin of our difficulties is that we assume we understand what structure means.
Three physics dictionaries in my library have not considered structure worth defining. Evidently, the ubiquitous term is considered too obvious to be worthy of a definition. From my research into the meaning of structure, even the Oxford Dictionary's definition of structure is misleading. It gives three meanings, (1) the arrangement of and relations between the parts of something complex. (2) a building or other object constructed from several parts. (3) the quality of being well organized.
In Field Structure Theory, only the last definition (3) vaguely applies. This paper looks at the question of structure and determines that structure is not the arrangement or relations of the parts to the whole, but rather the ability of the whole to define, generate and give cause to parts. As a culture, we think about structure as a product of parts. This misconception carries forward into our thinking about physics. So much of physics is trying to establish form and structure of the whole by looking at the parts. That is like trying to understand a string by considering the knot. That which defines a knot does not define, in the least, the nature of the string. The string defines the knot, not the other way around. When the knot is untied, its arrangement and relations disappear. Not so with the string. Nothing can remove stringness. What happens when we consider structure as the string and matter/energy as a being knots, is the discovery of what structure means. Example and models will be used throughout this exposition.
Premise: All things have form and structure; even space and time have form and structure.
The universe, at all scales, is structured form. By knowing the form of the original instance and by applying its inherent structural potential to build complexity, all forms of nature at any scale can be hierarchically derived. Demonstrating with working macro scale models, it will be shown how twisted loops produce energetic waves, which interact to produce particles, which interact to form a hydrogen atom. At each stage it will be shown how spin, twist, chirality, knotting, looping work collectively to conserve total energy values at each stage as the system brings about the emergent properties and qualities of manifest reality. The crucial and difficult to visualize topic of wave energy entanglement and condensation into, and with, matter will be modeled providing a clear comprehension of how nature does this. A justification of how a series of static models can model a dynamic and kinetic natural process will be address. This constitutes a new way of doing physics. Though presented previously at NPA, a particle chart that does for particles what Mendeleev's periodic table of elements did for atomic structure will be shown, time permitting, as an effort to restate the effectiveness of the ?structural approach? in understanding physical reality and to offer evidence that this way of approaching physics is valid.
Structure, as a study in and of itself, has gone unexamined and unquestioned. This paper asserts that the assumptions commonly held about structure are a primary reason for the inability of physics to comprehend nature’s fundamental properties. Structure theory, independent of a particular application, does not exist. It is always seen as arising from the interaction of other, material or energetic events. It has no stand-alone existence, and THAT is the problem. Structure is the organizing principle of form; when properly understood accounts for the formation of energetic and material form. This paper will examine the constructs of structure, how it organizes form, builds hierarchy and complexity, and provides for a blue print to the architecture of Nature.
Applying Structure Theory to fundamental physics begins with hypothetical action loops. From these are constructed the fractal hierarchy of forms that begin with the structure of the plenum (aether) from which particles and atomic structure emerge. Structure theory explains how, in precise terms, the properties of form at the Planck scale of 10-35cm interact to construct the hierarchies of form at all succeeding platforms of structure. Structural Skew Topology is employed to understand why energy and mass have definitive, non-arbitrary, bounded and limited relationships that have been found experimentally to be the properties of particles and fields. This topological geometry structures loop string theory to reveal how Nature decides what forms are real and what are unreal. In this way the estimated 10 500 possible ways a string can vibrate, as predicted by String Theory, is reduced to only those allowed by Nature.
This Part reports on new explorations into how loops of action link and knot to form three-dimensional hierarchies of structure producing a new family of topological form called Field Structures. Anyone interested in loop structure may find this research interesting particularly as it relates to fundamental mass/energy forms. SST investigates the meaning of structure finding that structure is a field property at all scales of experience suggesting that our difficulty with understanding Nature has been a systemic misunderstanding of structure. SST is a field topology. Previous attempts to apply knots to particles and atoms have failed. Structural Skew Topology (SST) predicts the known values of particle mass. SST organizes loops into a Sierpinski triangle fractal from which mass values can be derived. Particles evolve within the hierarchy but are measured when separated from the hierarchy. Without knowing the mass values as they evolve in the hierarchy, it has not been obvious why the independent particles masses are what they are. SST first constructs the mass values in terms of loops in the hierarchy so that when the particles are removed hierarchy their known mass values appear.
Field Structures generated by Structural Skew Topology relate to fundamental particles and explain mass & energy values. Action loops at Planck scale build a Sierpinski triangle fractal from which mass values can be derived. Particle mass values are measured and weighed outside of the natural hierarchy from which they are formed. Mass values inside the hierarchy are determined in terms of loops of action. When hierarchy decay occurs, hierarchy loop numbers are subtracted to obtain mass values for the stand-alone particles. Without knowing the mass values of the particles IN the hierarchy, particle mass values on their own appear unrelated. Inside the hierarchy particles share energy and have greater mass. Outside the hierarchy they cannot sustain the higher energies and decay. The structure of both bosons and fermions are modeled and explained, along with the mechanics of energy exchanges. FST views particles as the product of interacting loops which produce fields in which particles arise. FST delineates the topology of fields. Energy bosons are twists of the action loops of the field while mass fermions are a count of the action loops (circuits) in field. Loops are linked to twist in a fixed relationship accounting for the mass/energy relation in E = mc2.
Field Structure Theory is an independent investigation into mass/energy values of fundamental particles as generated by the skew geometry of Field Structures. In the 2005 meeting, the skew geometry of Field Structures was presented for the first time. At the 2006 Univ. of Tulsa meeting of NPA, the first attempt to explain how the Field Structures (FS) produced by this geometry are the geometric architecture for 1st. generation particles was made in the concluding minutes of the presentation. Due to the limited time available, the connection of Field Structures to physical mass/energy values was admittedly incomplete and highly sketchy. There was not sufficient time to make the proper hard connections between the FS models and fundamental particles. This year I will reverse the order of presentation and begin with the Particle Hierarchy Chart (PHC) and proceed to connect the particles to the FS models. The FS approach is coming at the problem of understanding how particles form, from a completely new direction from what may be called the structural approach. I have found it very difficult to explain this approach to listeners who do not build models or think structures. Physics, from the historical perspective, abandoned model building when the Uncertainity Principle and probabilities became the modus orperandi for quantum physics during the 1920's.. The last serious attempt to model the atom, from the structuralist point of view, was done by Buckminster Fuller and Kenneth Snelson. Previously Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) together with Peter Tait in the late 19th century had tried, and failed, to build convincing atomic models by defining all possible knot forms. Bhor's atom and subsequent descriptions by physicist during the 20th century were metaphors as opposed to an actual working structural conception. The difficulty has been that structural models could not muster a defense of determinism because the structural systems that were being used were incapable to deal with the quantum scale realities of particle architecture. Plainly speaking, the concept of structure was itself flawed and inadequate. Field Structures addressed the deficiencies of structural thinking by discovered that action loops structured by skew geometry axioms would allow the structural system used by nature to emerge. The conceptual basis for the Particle Hierarchy Chart (PHC) is that each particle is a platform produced by the interaction of lesser massive/energetic particles. Particles, by analogy, like seeds, grow out of a (family) tree. When physics measures particles, they dis connect the particle from the family tree to which they are attached, be they a larger particle or atom, and then look at it in isolation once the support structure has been removed. Since the particle cannot be measured in the family tree, measuring it when disconnected from the tree gives no indication of how it is derived. Hence how particles got the mass/energy ratios they have remained a mystery. To understand the stand-alone value of a particle, FST builds the family tree (the particle hierarchy) and then to ascertain the standalone value, subtracts the particles that must depart from the family tree along with the intended particle, to get the proper particle mass/energy values. Because each particle has a different value when bound to other particles as they are in the hierarchy, the structure of the particle hierarchy is the key to understanding mass/energy values.
In the 2005, the skew geometry of Field Structures was presented for the first time to the NPA audience and further elaborated upon at the 2006 meeting. This 2007 presentation of FST will look in detail into the way action loops interact to produce three-dimensional structures. FST proposes that structure is a field concept. FST proposes that there is a deterministic structure to physical reality and the unit structure is an action loops. These action units build a universe starting at events at 10-35 meters. The fascinating aspect of this hierarchy is that it is done entirely with action loops and nothing else and that this structural hierarchy can be modeled at our scale of experience. What we think of and experience of as 3-D form, is the end result of lesser organizations of action loops that have been twisted and folded so that they become the circuitry for the higher dimensional platforms of structure. A hierarchy of structural geometry is produced using only loops of action that build fractally, synergetically, and in a continuum. The working 3-D models that will be shown reproduce at the mencroscale (human scale) what is believed to be the same architecture hierarchy employed by nature to build particles, atoms, molecules, etc. The ability of FST to produce a Particle Hierarchy Chart that predicts and explains the mass/energy values of fundamental particles is offered in Part One to validates this assertion. This presentation (Part Two) of skew geometry reveals some hidden truths about the nature of structure that are so revolutionary as to demand a reevaluation of what structure is all about. These structural principles are found to apply universally to all physical structures. Skew geometry will show us why and how our universe is structurally integrated, and interactive.
Field Structures begins with a discussion of the concept of action, the simplest notion we have about anything. FST shows a structural system that postulates a loop of action and then shows how these loops of action can interact to produce three-dimensional action event that organize fractally according to Field Structure mechanics to produce energy and mass structural systems that in nature are the fundamental boson/fermion particles. Field Structures show with working models (that will be shown and demonstrated) how action organizes itself. These are structures that are unique and new to science. Field Structure Theory will show how it is possible to begin with the simplest of all possible notions (action), produce radiant energy waves which interact with themselves to produce closed standing waves, which in turn interact to produce a particle, which interact at a higher field order to form atoms, and so on up the hierarchy to molecules, and beyond; all this made possible by a simple loop of action. I will briefly review the basic building block forms shown at Storrs meeting in 2005, and then go on to show exactly how these structures can determine particle characteristics. Field Structures show how fields can be understood supporting the idea with charts, graphs and tables in a Power Point presentation how fields and particles are related. The 3-D 'stop time' models to be shown and demonstrated freezes the blistering motion of a particle so their inherent and underlying structure can be examined at our scale of experience. Once the structural system is explained, and due to the limitations of presenting time, the presentation will only be able to show two important issues in physics: 1) how these Field Structures generate the known mass values with which physics is familiar, and 2) why there are only two stable rest mass particles, the electron and proton. This presentation will not be physics as you know it. This approach had to be taken in order to understand where mass values come from. It is a new way of seeing physical reality as the end result of structuring together loops of action to form spatial events that delineate motion, momentum and position.
Based on the discovery of a new class of forms involving the organization of action loop(s) into circuited three-dimensional nucleated wave structures with promising applications to physics. A new class of form and structure has been discovered, here called ?Field Structures?, that offer a promising new way to model (and think about) the nature of fields. Considering action to be a line (path) of force, and searching for the ways a line of force may express itself, it was found that when the edges of any polyhedra are skewed at their vertices so that the edge lines do not intersect (but rather interact) and these edges are then continued to distal edges, continuous loops of action result. In the process, these loops of action twist, torque, spin, and knot into a standing waves that form a spatial volumetric polyhedral events having prominent mass-like characteristics while at the same time retaining their energetic natures. Push-pull and twist forces are modeled, which have radiant (boson) and stable (fermion) forms of structures. The mechanics of bonding, chirality, at the particle, atomic and molecular level has been productively explored and will be demonstrated. These structures are then used to build fractal hierarchies of action (energy) fields that correspond to primary physical forms. These structures, for the first time, behave as a field while expressing the fundamentals of a particle, resolving the long-standing and vexing mechanical dichotomy between particle and wave. This paper will outline the basics of Field Structures and then explore how these forms are useful for understanding the physics of the natural world. It will conclude by suggesting that the problem with physics is systemic. By having the correct model of how action arises, structures itself, and produces structure, it will be possible to follow the model incrementally and accurately up towards the solar, galactic and beyond, and down the scale of form and structure, from our familiar organic scale of structure, to the molecular, atomic, particle, and ultimately to the Absolute Action Matrix itself (the action plenum). A PowerPoint slide presentation will be accompanied by working models of Field Structures.