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Alexander A. Scarborough
local time: 2023-06-08 21:47 (-04:00 DST)
Alexander A. Scarborough (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • From Void to Energy to Universal Systems in 15 Stages of Beautiful Continuity (2011) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Alexander A. Scarborough   read the paper:

    The five initial stages of the Sequence of Origins (SO) are presented in continuity: from Void at absolute-zero temperature to Energy via BEC processes to quasars to galaxies to creation of billions of a large variety of dynamic fiery solar systems. Here the five laws of planetary motion spring into action, forming billions of weird solar systems along with at least one rare system of 10+ planets spaced in accord with phi geometry, our own Solar System. In compliance with the laws of thermodynamics, the five-stage evolution of planets and spherical moons is initiated; e.g., Planet Earth is now in its fourth (rocky) stage of evolution. The findings of space probes continually add scientific validity to the SO-FLINE-BEC model of universal origins and evolution; a few selected examples are presented.

  • The SO-FLINE-BEC Model of Universal Origins (1973-2008): Fulfilling the Predictions of Einstein, Descartes, Planck, Kuhn, et al. (2010) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Alexander A. Scarborough   read the paper:

    In 2009 Stephen Hawking, the world-renown physicist, startled the world of science (Discover, Nov 2009) by his influential, accurate statement: "There was no singularity," a definitive fact of the SO-FLINE-BEC model of universal origins -- and perhaps a death knell for the Big Bang myth. In fulfilling the specific predictions made by Descartes, Einstein, Planck, Kuhn et al., the new model is the only known concept capable of fully complying with these and other authoritative foresights. After 35 years of researched origins, and publications of the Energy Series in ten cumulative editions, the new model is now soundly based on the five laws of planetary motion (FL) that furnish definitive clues to origins and evolution of universal systems:  from Void to Energy to Universe in a five-stage sequence of origins (SO), followed by the five-stage evolution of planets (and moons) (IN-E) at rates in accord with mass, while in tune with the five laws, relativity, and E = mc2. The fundamentals of the new model provide a solid foundation for relatively easy solutions to universal anomalies -- just the opposite of the Big Bang myth that makes these solutions unattainable.  Each discovery of the space probes continues to further validate the new model.

  • The LB-FLINE-BEC Macrocosm of Universal Origins: Guidelines to a Theory of Everything (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Alexander A. Scarborough   read the paper:

    The LB-FLINE-BEC (Little Bangs/Five Laws/Internal Nucleosynthesis/Evolution/Bose-
    Einstein-Condensation) model of universal origins had its beginning in 1973 via Fuels: A New
    Theory. Realization and substantiation of the intimate relationship of the hydrocarbon fuels (gas,
    oil, coal) led to the ongoing source of Earth?s atomic and molecular matter: a nuclear energy core,
    later found to be in agreement with Descartes? belief (1644) in Earth?s ?Sun-like? core. This led to a
    definitive understanding of the five stages of planetary evolution (E) driven by Internal
    Nucleosynthesis (IN) at rates in accordance with mass. Recognition of the fiery origin of our Solar
    System, and subsequent discovery of the Fourth and Fifth Laws of Planetary Motion (FL), provided
    clues that led to definitive evidence of galactic formations spewed (Little Bangs, LB) from Black
    Holes (a.k.a. Black Energy Spheres, BES), the densest form of energy, previously formed at the
    perimeter of our spherical Universe expanding at c speed into the black, absolute-zero-temperature
    Void enveloping it. The conditions here are perfect for creating space-time energy via the Bose-
    Einstein-Condensation (BEC). This final link in the LB-FLINE-BEC model of ongoing universal
    origins provides, and explains, the steady source of energy essential for driving forever the ongoing
    functions of all universal systems: from Void to Energy to Universe ? coincidently, the title of the
    unpublished 1980 manuscript in the author?s ten-edition Energy Series (1975-2008). The updated
    model offers unlimited opportunities for scientists to find, as Einstein predicted, ??the right
    answers?simple and beautiful? for the Theory of Everything (TOE).
    The five papers in this series present ten new developments dealing with the continuity of the
    LB-FLINE-BEC model of universal origins: the Bose-Einstein-Condensation, quasars, expanding
    Earth, a completed book, and six powerful discoveries confirming the model?s scientific validity
    (with transparencies).

  • The Expanding Earth (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    To understand why Earth is undergoing its continuous expansion, some background is absolutely essential. A plethora of substantiated evidence clearly supports the fact that Earth is expanding continuously, and has been growing in size (but not in mass) since its dynamistic placement in the third orbit around our Sun some five billion years ago, all in full accord with the Five Laws of Planetary Motion (three by Kepler, two by Scarborough). Reason for expansion: transformation of energy into expanded atomic matter (magma).

  • Origins of Universal Systems: Guidelines to a Macrocosmic/Microcosmic TOE (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    ?When the right answers are found, they will be simple and beautiful.? Einstein. Just as Einstein predicted, the right answers to universal mysteries are simple and beautiful. They span a time-frame of 2500 years: from Pythagoras' key findings to Scarborough's revolutionary Fourth and Fifth Laws of Planetary Motion that first eluded Kepler in 1595. These discoveries provide definitive clues to the origins of solar systems and the galaxies that spawn solar systems by the billions, and the five-stage evolution of the smaller masses of white-hot energy into planets and moons. The initial energy driving these events in perpetuity is derived via the BEC processes at absolute-zero temperature at the outward-moving interface of Universal Space and the Infinite Space enveloping it. Definitive evidence and data accumulated during the past 35 years warrant a likely sequence of events revealing how our rapidly expanding, self-sustaining runaway universe came into being: from Void-to-Energy-to-Universe. This scenario supplies the constant, unimaginable amounts of energy required to sustain all universal systems. In the following sequence of consecutive events, the revolutionary LB-FLINE-BEC model meets all criteria: from void to black spheres (holes) of densest energy, to quasars, to galaxies with billions of solar systems among billions of stars, to planets and moons evolving through five stages of planetary evolution as self-sustaining entities, each producing its own land, water, and atmosphere ? and usually some form of life. One excellent example of planetary evolution via internal nucleosynthesis: Earth's continuous production of the closely related hydrocarbon fuels (gas, oil, coal).

  • Questions for Discussion on 'Origins of Universal Systems': A Brief History of the Right Answers, Simple and Beautiful (2009) [Updated 6 years ago]

    ?When the right answers are found, they will be simple and beautiful.? Einstein. And they are! As it moves from Void to Energy to Universe, the LB-FLINE-BEC macrocosm of origins definitively reveals answers in the form of questions in a beautiful continuity of origins and evolution of interlocked universal systems. Seventeen questions selected from among many illustrate the scope of right answers found only in the new model. Will the answers relegate the Big Bang to the ashes of history?

  • Recent Discoveries Continue to Confirm Scientific Validity of the LB-FLINE-BEC Macrocosm (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Six recent space discoveries selected from among many provide powerful support to
    the LB-FLINE-BEC model: (1) Mars? valleys formed by recurrent floods; (2) three huge young
    planets around a young star; (3) vast glaciers of water is under Martian ground; (4) a Jupiter-sized
    planet, HD1897336b, contains water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide in its atmosphere; (5) photo
    evidence about Jupiter?s volcanic moon 10; (6) photo evidence of Saturn?s tiny moon Enceladus.

  • The Proposed BB/LB/FLINE Concept: Unifying a Modified Big Bang with the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins and Evolution (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]

    The proposed BB/LB/FLINE Concept: Unifying a modified BB with the LB/FLINE model of origins of Universal Systems. Due to lack of a viable alternative, the unsubstantiated BB concept has become well-entrenched in scientific literature. While most scientists recognize its mythical (Sagan) and conjectural (Hawking) status, they are forced to interpret their amazing discoveries in the BB perspective. Since myth begets myths, futility is too often the reason that science remains stymied in spite of such brilliance. However, most, if not all, discoveries do fit precisely into the revolutionary LB/FLINE model of origins of universal systems. This paper presents a viable alternative that offers a way out of the maze. Altering the initial stage of the BB via elimination of the impossibility of all universal energy/matter being contained in a very small mass will enable science to get back on the right train of thought. Once past the initial stage of the BB inflation, the LB/FLINE will take control via its processes of creating black spheres of space-time, the densest form of energy, the source of all galaxies, each containing billions of stars embedded in hot gaseous dust-clouds. The smaller stars eventually evolve into planets of various sizes through five readily observable stages of evolution via Internal Nucleosynthesis. The LB/FLINE model is soundly based on the five laws of planetary motion that offer substantial evidence for definitive solutions to planetary and, eventually, all universal anomalies.

  • 20 Questions and 20 Answers You Should Know About Origins and Evolution of Universal Systems (2008) [Updated 6 years ago]

    20 questions about our universe are posed, and 20 definitive answers are presented in accordance with the new LB/FLINE model. Some items discussed include: what we know and don?t know, and may never know; the intimate connection between E=mc? and all universal spheres; and the role of black holes. The conclusion is drawn that the answers can replace many things that are utilized in the Big Bang concept that do not seem to be definitive, provable or believable.

  • Twenty Selected Ideas Fundamental to the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins (2008) [Updated 6 years ago]

    Twenty Selected Ideas Fundamental to the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins. Twenty ideas underpinning the revolutionary LB/FLINE concepts are selected for brief discussions to emphasize their crucial roles in understanding how our Solar System (and all solar systems) form(ed) dynamically, and why they are self-sustaining entities. Ideas include the Five Laws (FL) of Planetary Motion and Internal Nucleosynthesis (IN) that drive all planetary Evolution (E). Another highlight of the concept is the scientifically valid explanation of why Earth is slowly and continuously expanding, and consequently, why species come and go as functions of time. The new model definitively explains the abiogenic origin, evolution and intimate relationship of the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, oil, coal): ongoing nuclear and chemical processes of Earth?s interior.

  • The Revised Fourth and New Fifth Laws of Planetary Motion (2007) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Discussions at the 2006 NPA meeting resulted in a later revision of the Fourth Law of Planetary Motion that governed the dynamic origin of geometrically-spaced orbital positions of the original ten planets of our solar system. Whether or not the Fourth Law applies in certain principles to other solar systems remains a question for the future. Dr. Robert Heaston and I worked together in restating the Law to bring it in line with the style used by Kepler in the First Three Laws. The new Fifth Law ? originally included as a part of the Fourth Law ? is now a separate entity that continues governing the ongoing gradual changes in orbital positions since the dynamic origin of our solar system some five billion years ago. Principles of the new Fifth Law may apply universally to all solar systems. Simplified geometric diagrams are utilized in the explanations. The Five Laws (FL) offer the capability of deciphering the full history of our solar system.

  • The LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins: From Superstrings to Planets (2007) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    The Little Bangs/FLINE concept (1973-2006) evolved in reverse order of the ongoing processes established by natural laws and sound logic. In 1973-1979, the definitive origin and intimate relationship of the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, oil, coal) (and all planetary matter) were established as products of internal nucleosynthesis (IN) that drives all evolution (E). In 1980-1995, the Fourth Law of Planetary Motion and Kepler's Three Laws confirmed the dynamic origin of our geometrically-spaced planets as nuclear masses that are evolving through five stages of evolution. In 2006, the Fourth Law was modified and reworded; the Fifth Law was established as a separate entity from the original Fourth Law. All Five Laws (FL) are now included in the FLINE model. Definitive evidence supplied by the FLINE revealed clues to the dynamic origin of galaxies that spew, from each pair of poles, hot gaseous dust-clouds embedded with nuclear energy masses of all sizes; the smaller ones eventually evolve into planets, usually in some solar-system fashion. From this first stage, planets will evolve via internal nucleosynthesis through four more stages of evolution: gaseous, transitional, rocky, and inactive. Black spheres (a.k.a. black holes) form continuously at the perimeter of our spherical universe at its interface with Dark Infinite Space at absolute zero. The dense, black spheres, the densest form of energy, and the starting point for nature's ongoing creations, consist of superstrings with which white-hot galaxies are spun: a black remnant remains at each galactic center to hold the system together.

  • Asteroid or Comet? That is the Question (2006) [Updated 6 years ago]

    In 1802 Heinrich Olbers identified the Asteroids as remnants of a disintegrated planet. Substantiated evidence in the scientific literature supports the accuracy of his observations; e.g, the Four Laws of Planetary Motion (1609-1995) reveal how Planet Asteroids was placed in the fifth position among ten original planetary orbits around our Sun during the dynamic layout of the Solar System some five billion years ago. Most remnants of the disintegrated planet(s) still occupy their planetary orbit(s) as small, irregularly shaped planetoids classified as three types of asteroids: stony solids, stony comet shells, and metallic, with the largest, Ceres, being an integrated Moon-like combination of the three types. In 1794 Ernst Chladi published a first work arguing for the cosmic origin of cometary fireballs and the generic connection between fireballs, meteriorites, and meteors. Substantiated evidence adds strong support to his findings; e.g., the burned-out shells of Phobos and Deimos (the two inactive moons of Mars) are shown to be former fiery comets. Evidence reveals that comets are periodic ejecta from larger nuclear energy masses, and are relatively short-lived in terms of a few thousand years. Specific examples are given. The evidence clearly differentiates between asteroids and comets, while revealing that they are neither planetary building blocks nor primordial leftovers from a Big Bang -- findings that are proving essential to understanding our Solar System?s origin, anomalies, history, and future changes as functions of time.

  • Origins of Universal Systems: From Myth to Reality in Twelve Giant Steps and 2500 Years (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    This paper pulls together twelve significant discoveries crucial to understanding the origins and evolution of universal systems. Beginning around 500 B.C. with discoveries and beliefs of the Pythagoreans, the presentation progresses briefly through the prinicipal works of Aristotle, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton , Descartes, Olbers, Einstein, Hubble, Chladni, and this author, right into the 21st century. Interlocked via sound logic and substantiated evidence, these discoveries nudge science away from the Poe/Laplace Big-Bang/Accretion hypothesis, and toward a new direction of revolutionary scientific thought: the Little Bangs (LB), Four Laws of Planetary Motion (FL), Internal Nucleosynthesis (IN), that drives all Evolution (E) in the LB/FLINE model of universal origins and evolution.

  • What is a Planet? (2006) [Updated 6 years ago]

    All planets began as small cometary-like stars that now have evolved into the second, third, fourth, or fifth stage of spherical planetary evolution at rates in full accord with size and time. The best-known examples are, respectively, Jupiter (gaseous), Uranus (transitional), Earth (rocky), and Mercury (inactive). Planets are self-sustaining entities, generally revolving around a larger central mass while evolving through five observable stages of evolution (E) via internal nucleo-synthesis (IN) and in full compliance with natural laws of planetary systems; e.g., the laws of planetary motion, gravity, and the ongoing energy-matter relationship expressed as E=mc2(?). Other than different rates of evolution and subsequent variations in compositional matter, spherical size is immaterial. However, in every case, IN and E are crucial: one cannot exist without the other during the billions of years of transformation of their nuclear energy cores into planetary matter.

    This paper is aka "What Are Planets?"

  • Origins of Universal Systems: A Change in Direction of Scientific Thought (2005) [Updated 6 years ago]

    The Big Bang (BB) hypothesis, initiated in 1948, lacks substantiated evidence to the extent of being called conjectural, a myth, and even a costly fraud -- yet it survives for lack of a viable alternative. To paraphrase Thomas Kuhn: before there can be any scientific revolution, there must be a reasonable concept to replace prevailing beliefs. The Little Bangs (LB)/FLINE model of universal origins is a viable alternative that meets Kuhn?s prerequisite for a valid scientific revolution, and offers a definitive change in direction of scientific thought. The new model offers valid solutions to many mysteries that remain insolvable in the BB model of universal origins. It needs neither dark energy nor dark matter to explain these mysteries. Nor does it need the BB?s cosmological constant to explain the rapid expansion of our Universe, nor gravitons to explain gravity. Along with these explanations, the model explains the universal 2.7 K radiation as a product of the ongoing nucleo-synthesis in stars and active planets in all galaxies; such radiation is steady, but relatively short-lived, and must have a constant source to produce it continuously.

  • The Cosmic Microwave Background: A New Perspective on the 2.7 K Radiation (2005) [Updated 6 years ago]

    Three observations provide the fundamental basis for the standard cosmology featuring the Big Bang (BB) concept of universal origins: 1) The observed expansion of the Universe (usually interpreted in the framework of relativity as an expansion of the metric of space); 2) The 2.7 K cosmic background radiation (CBR), interpreted as a remnant of the BB; 3) The apparently successful explanation of the relative abundance of the light elements. Oddly, the same three observations serve even better as the fundamental basis for a different concept: the Little Bangs (LB)/FLINE model of universal origins that intermeshes precisely with the Four Laws of Planetary Motion and the 5-stage evolution of planets and moons via internal nucleo-synthesis that drives all universal evolution. Recent evidence of galaxies so distant that light now arriving at telescopes reflects conditions of the galaxies at least 12.7 billion years ago: stars were appearing "at a prodigious rate" - as predicted by the LB concept. Conversely, the BB provides little, if any, substantiated method for continuous or evolutionary functions of universal systems. This paper concentrates on the 2.7 K CBR, providing strong evidence against the concept of radiation existing as a leftover remnant of the BB. Substantiated evidence reveals the powerful and intimate connection between the 2.7 K CBR and the LB/FLINE model of universal origins. Microwave radiation is relatively short-lived, and must have a constant source to produce it continuously.

  • On the Origin of Hydrocarbon Fuels (2004) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    This manuscript argues for a particular understanding of the relationship between the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, petroleum, peat, coal), and the processes by which they were made abiologically, by means of natural physical and chemical laws.  Its development includes fourteen indisputable facts, along with much suportive evidence, including a definitive research project (1985-1986) conducted by Georgia Tech research personnel.  The results are products of thirty years of research into the myths and facts concerning the origin and evolution of hydrocarbon fuels.

  • A New Fourth Law of Planetary Motion and its Ramifications (2004) [Updated 6 years ago]

    This paper presents the mathematical solution to a new Fourth Law of Panetary Motion that eluded Kepler in 1595.  Each of three sets of definitive geometric solutions corroborates the other two sets in substantiation of relative motions and precise interactions of celestial energy masses around a central star, our Sun, during the dynamic layout of our solar system some 5 billion years ago.  This solution clearly reveals the full significance of the enigmatic Bode's Law by explaining the unorthodox spacing of planetary orbits.  Meeting precise criteria of relative masses and relative velocities, both as functions of a specific distance apart, the two original energy masses interacted via gravity and momentum to place the resulting fragmentary masses into precise geometrically-spaced orbits in full compliance with the Four Laws of Planetary Motion (FL).  The energy masses, properly spaced and obeying the laws of physics, chemistry and thermodynamics via means of internal nucleosynthesis (IN), initiated their ongoing rates of 5-stage planetary evolution (E) as functions of mass/time.  Much corroborating evidence reveals how and why every planet is a self-sustaining entity creating its own matter and controlling its own rate of evolution.  The resulting FLINE model opens clear pathways to definitive understanding of the past, present and future history of our SS (and extra-solar systems) and of the evoluation of planetary spheres.

  • Bringing the Copernican Revolution on Full Circle Via a New Fourth Law of Planetary Motion (2003) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems (2003) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • Origins and Evolution of Planetary Systems: Bringing the Copernican Revolution Full Circle (2002) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • On the Spacing of the Planets: A New Fourth Law of Planetary Motion (2000) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    In 1595 Johannes Kepler made the initial attempts to discover the enigmatic Fourth Law of Planetary Motion explaining the geometric spacing of the six then-known planets. Discovered during the years of 1980-1995, the mathematical solution is revealed in three sets of geometric diagrams in which each set corroborates the other two in rendering a definitive explanation of how planets came to be in their present orbits around the Sun. Concerning the origins of solar systems and the evolution of planets, this solution is proving to be the crucial key to understanding relevant anomalies, including those of the 29 known extrasolar systems. Together with Kepler's First Three Laws of Planetary Motion, the Four Laws reveal definitive reasons for the dramatic differences between our multi-planet Solar System and the many singular-planet extrasolar systems in which each giant gaseous planet is too close to its central star to have formed in its unorthodox orbital position via the prevailing concept of planetary formation by the accretion of dust, gas, and/or planetesimals. Substantive corroborating evidence necessitates the rethinking of current beliefs about the origins of solar systems and the evolution of planets.

  • Definitive Insights into the Origins of Solar Systems and the Orbital Spacing and Evolution of Planets (1999) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    The mystery of why planets are spaced in a mathematical pattern around the Sun has baffled scientists since astronomer Johann Kepler (discoverer of the first three laws of planetary motion) made the initial futile attempt in J595 to find the solution. This elusive solution to a definitive Fourth Law of Planetary Motion explaining the spacing of planets is proposed. The four laws are powerful evidence that planets began as Sun-like masses of nuclear energies that evolve via the processes of internal nucleosynthesis through five common and observable stages of evolution. The Fourth Law is the final link in a FLINE paradigm of planetary origins comprised of three chronological. inseparable and ongoing realities: The Four Laws of Planetary Motion (FL). Internal Nucleosynthesis (IN) and Evolution (E). The pace of evolution through each of the five stages and the planetary features in each stage are revealed as functions of planetary mass and distance from the Sun. All planetary systems embrace these FLINE principles, of which more remain to be discovered. Every planetary anomaly should be examined closely in this new perspective.

  • On the Spacing of the Planets: Corroboration of the Proposed Fourth Law of Planetary Motion (1998) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • The Spacing of Planets: A Cogent Paradigm of the Origins and Evolution of the Planets (1997) [Updated 6 years ago]

    In 1995 the solution to the mystery of the geometric spacing of the planets in our solar system (SS) evolved as the final link in a continuity of cogent evidence initiated in 1973. The new Fourth Law of Planetary Motion (FL) reveals how the huge embryonic masses of energy were placed in precise Phi orbits around the Sun, later to evolve as planets undergoing five common stages of evolution in accord with size and in full compliance with all natural laws. This geometric origin clearly explains the enigmatic discrepancies in Bode's law, and how gravity displaced the planets from their original Phi positions to their current Bode positions during the past 5 billion years. Valid solutions to all anomalies of the SS finally are attainable. Now definitive and testable, the new paradigm will enable scientists to understand the history of the SS, to predict the future orbital displacement and fate of every planet, and to explain all differences (including size, composition, surface features, electromagnetism, the rates and stages of evolution, life forms, etc.) that exist among planetary spheres.

  • Characterization of Natural Gas, Oil and Coal Deposits with Regard to Distribution Depth, and Trace Elements Content (1986) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Georgia Institute of Technology, Neely Nuclear Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332.

  • Alternate Energy Sources VI (1976) [Updated 6 years ago]

    Alternate Energy Sources VI, Clean Energy Research Institute, Volume III, Wind/Ocean/Nuclear/Hydrogen, University of Miami.