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Christina Anne Knight
local time: 2023-05-29 02:09 (-04:00 DST)
Christina Anne Knight (Books)

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by Christina Anne Knight

Pages: 136
Publisher: xlibris
Year: 2010
ISBN: 978-1453548622
ISBN: 978-1453548615

Websites: antigravitationalforce.com

The field of cosmology may be on the verge of a significant paradigm shift, as there is an increasing awareness that scientists have missed something fundamental as they carry on in their quest for a theory of everything and a theory that unites general relativity with quantum mechanics? Knight proposes a new theory suggesting that the space-time geometry possesses a complex hierarchical structure that comprises twelve dimensions: nine space dimensions and three time (with stratum specific variations in Planck time and Planck temperature among other things). Furthermore, this structure is divided into three strata, each of which has its own four-dimensional structure and stratum-specific parameters with variations in the gravitational constant G, the speed of light c, and the Planck constant. Through the pages of this work, this theory is further explained. In addition, she also proposes the existence of a short range force ( the anti-gravitational force) which is limited to sub-Planck length distances. It is this force which establishes the minimum size of a discrete unit of space (and renders the existence of singularities impossible). I completely agree that the cyclic model solves a number of problems that plague inflationary cosmology. However, I would go further and suggest that an ?evolutionary? cyclic model would also solve another perplexing problem- the so-called ?fine-tuning? problem regarding cosmic parameters. If cosmic parameters undergo a process of ?parametric mutagenesis? as the result of thermodynamic pressures which accumulate transcyclic- the ?fine-tuning? of the parameters found in our current cosmic cycle can be readily explained. Of course this would require the abandonment of the idea that the initial expansion began from a singularity (there are no singularities in the universe- then or now). Expansion of the universe from a singularity eliminates any possibility of evolutionary continuity between cosmic cycles, especially if the process is dependent on random, quantum fluctuations (which I contend it is not).

In order to maintain a measure of intercyclic continuity it is necessary that there should not be appreciable variation in initial thermodynamic conditions from one cycle to the next. This can not be accomplished if the gravitational force is the only force in operation at the moment of each cycle?s ?big bang?. In my book: ?The Short Range Antigravitational Force and the Hierarchically Stratified Space-time Geometry in 12 Dimensions? I propose the existence of an antigravitational force which operates only at subplanck length distances. It is the unstable relationship between this force and the gravitational force that makes the universe inherently unstable, and which produces the thermodynamic conditions that drive the cyclic process (it is the unstable relationship between the oppositional gravitational forces which produces the thermodynamic cosmic gradient that is reduced during the expansion phase of the cosmic cycle). The transcyclic, evolving relationship between these two fundamental forces resulting from incremental variation in their range and strength, as well their evolutionary production of the derived forces (the electromagnetic, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force during our current cycle for example) is responsible for the transcyclic changes (as adaptations) in initial thermodynamic conditions.

It may also be possible that there is more than one set of initial thermodynamic conditions which reflects the complexity of the relationship between the three types of matter ( baryonic, dark matter, and dark energy) which are believed to exist in our universe. If these three types of matter coexist in a hierarchical relationship (as homologous structures) of space-time structure, with matter-type, dependent variations in dimensional number and cosmic parameters, then it is possible that each type of matter may have initiated expansion at a different initial temperature (reflecting a variation in planck temperature for each type). This might suggest that the dark energy and dark matter strata could have expanded (or ?inflated?) substantially before the universe cooled enough for the baryonic matter stratum to initiate expansion. In any case, any cosmological theory which will succeed inflationary cosmology must account for the complex relationship between these three types of matter, as well as explain the complexity of cosmic parameters without resorting to purely random processes.

More issues relating to this subject are discussed within this book. Although not comprehensive, the text is presented in a very comprehensible format to serve as a vehicle in introducing new ideas to lay readers with a minimal familiarity with contemporary cosmology. This book is an initial step towards discovering the answers to the many questions relating to the issues discussed. For more information on The Short Range Anti-Gravitational Force and The Hierarchically Stratified Space-Time Geometry in 12 Dimensions, log on to http://www.xlibris.com/.

Author can be reached at: cknight29@cox.net