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Steve Shoulders
local time: 2023-06-09 17:56 (-07:00 DST)
Steve Shoulders (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • Charge Clusters in Action (1999) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by Ken Shoulders, Steve Shoulders   read the paper:

    New energy transformations have been found using highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avagadro's number. When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects. Evidence will be shown for the EV transiting the solid material, fluidizing it by contributing one extra electron per nucleon for a period considerably longer than the relaxation time, and then imparting momentum to the fluid. Under such conditions, the impact of this fluid on another solid buries a slug of solidified material to depth of over 20 micrometers. This abnormal behavior introduces the notion of energy gain produced through a low energy atomic and molecular phase change coupled with high recombination energy release. Evidence will also be introduced for the underlying energy production process stemming from the equivalence of an electron-annihilation energy release based on the manipulation of fractional electronic charge.

    Scanning electron micrographs will be introduced showing EV borehole perfection, dual EV existence, and an electrically driven, sloshing type of material reflection in the borehole that is correctable with impedance-matching, micro nozzles. Micro thrusters using a 20 micrometer diameter and 100 micrometer long slug of non-explosive material will be discussed that are based on a spark-like propulsion process giving sufficient velocity to produce shock cones 70 micrometers apart at atmospheric pressure after being initiated from an energy source of 20 micro Joules. In vacuum, the ions from such a source travel 1 cm in 50 nanoseconds. As an example of the new energetics produced by EV interaction with material, data will be submitted on an intense light source having dimensions of a few micrometers and duration of several picoseconds arising from a form of synchrotron radiation. The basis for controlling the wavelength of this photon source from the visible light region to gamma wavelengths will be discussed. Micrographs will be shown of a low energy nuclear reaction that has produced nuclear transmutations by using a nuclear cluster reaction process.

  • Charge Clusters (1997) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions (1996) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Experimental evidence in the form of micrographs and X-ray microanalysis is presented suggesting that nuclear charge clusters, (micro sized plasmoids containing 1011 electrons and 106 prontons or deuterons) can accumulate into lattice nuclei with sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier and trigger transmutation events. The hypothesis to explain cold fusion is proposed where electrolytic loading of palladium or nickel causes cracking and fractoemission of the charge clusters.