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Dr. Stefan Cwojdzinski
local time: 2023-06-05 08:47 (+01:00 )
Dr. Stefan Cwojdzinski (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • Professor Dr. SAMUEL WARREN CAREY (1911 - 2002) - Entdecker der neuzeitlichen Theorie der Erdexpansion Sein Werk und dessen Fortf?hrung (2007) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Stefan Cwojdzinski   read the paper:

    Vorbemerkungen der Schriftleitung: Dieser ins Deutsche ?bersetzte polnisch-sprachige Beitrag von Dr. Stefan Cwojdzinski - 2005 in der Zeitschrift ?Przeglad Geologiczny? (= Geologische Rundschau), 53(5): 1 - 7; Warszawa erschienen - wurde mit Einverst?ndnis des Autors von Professor Dr.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Jacob (Berlin) dem ?Nachrichtenblatt? zur Ver?ffentlichung ?berlassen. Die Schriftleitung freut sich und ist dankbar, das seit einigen Jahren immer h?ufiger, aber auch sehr kontrovers diskutierte Thema der Erdexpansion zur Diskussion stellen zu d?rfen, wohl wissend, dass unter den Leserinnen und Lesern des ?Nachrichtenblatt(es)? unterschiedliche Meinungen herrschen. Auch baut sie auf die Tugend der Toleranz und eine sachliche Argumentation. Wissenschaftliche Neugier und Gelassenheit sind vonn?ten. Emotionale ?berheblichkeit und Augenverschlie?en bringen uns, wie auch die Wissenschaftsge-schichte lehrt, nicht weiter. Herzlicher Dank geb?hrt Professor Dr.-Ing. Jacob zudem f?r zus?tzliche Recherchen zum Text.

    The paper is German translation of work published in Polish:

    Profesor SamuelWarren Carey (1911?2002)

    Tw?rca wsp?lczesnego oblicza teorii ekspansji Ziemi.

    Dzielo i jego kontynuacja

  • Profesor Samuel Warren Carey (1911?2002) Tw?rca wsp?lczesnego oblicza teorii ekspansji Ziemi. Dzielo i jego kontynuacja (2005) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Stefan Cwojdzinski   read the paper:

    Paper in Polish. It contains colour photographs of Prof. S.W. Carey and group of expansionists during scientific meetings i Theuern (Germany) in 2003 and Urbino (Italy) in 2004.

  • Mantle Plumes and Dynamics of the Earth Interior - Towards a New Model (2004) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Stefan Cwojdzinski   read the paper:

    Seismic tomography provides reconstructions of thermal-density structure of the Earth's mantle as deep as the mantle/ core boundary (CMB). For the first time, a direct image of dynamic processes, occurring inside the globe, was obtained. Existing plate-tectonic models of modern geodynamics lead to a number of discrepancies. Most important are: stationary position of mantle plumes as the assumption of the convection process in the Earth's mantle, mantle convection versus data on both its viscosity and the existence of global seismic discontinuities, possibility of horizontal displacements of lithospheric plates above the discontinuous LVZ zone which disappears under deep-seated continental ?roots?, the model of radially growing distance between mid-oceanic ridges and Africa (also Antarctica), the growing separation between hot spots occur in neighbouring plates with time, geophysical data indicative of considerable input of energy and material from the Earth's core into the mantle, uncompensated by any exchange between the lower and upper mantle. New models (multi-layered convection or a plate-tectonic hybrid convection model) intend to explain tomographic image with taking into consideration geochemical data but with miserable results. The nature of mantle convection still remains controversial. The phenomenon of stationarity of hot spots relative to the accepted plate movements and the absence of evidence indicating deformations of mantle plumes by the convection system are also unclear and controversial. The presented model of the expanding Earth's offers a reasonable solution to these discrepancies and paradoxes.

  • The tectonic structure of the continental lithosphere considered in the light of the expanding Earth theory? a proposal of a new interpretation of deep seismic data. (2003) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Stefan Cwojdzinski   read the paper:

    Seismic reflection investigations, in particular the so-called near-vertical reflection seismics, have been the

    main research tool of the Earth's crust and the upper mantle since the 1980s. Many international research seismic projects

    have been performed over the last 20 years, and have provided a lot of data commonly interpreted with the use of the plate tectonics

    paradigm. However, these interpretations face many difficulties. Firstly, it is difficult to explain the enigmatic general

    similarity of the seismic structure of the continental crust under various geostructures that are different in age and origin; similarly,

    its commonly observed geometrical symmetry is an area of contention.

    Resemblance of seismic reflectivity in various geological environments indicates (1) the crucial influence of rheological

    properties of the lithosphere on reflectivity and (2) the common tectonic process responsible for development of seismic

    reflectivity. Depending on thermal conditions, the brittely deformable continental crust occurs to a depth of 10?20 km, which

    corresponds to temperatures of 300?400?C. Below this depth, there is a ductile deformation zone dominated by the flow of solid

    state matter. Obviously, the boundary between the brittle deformation zone and the ductile deformation zone is not sharp. Its

    width is dependent on both the heat flow and the lithology. Another rheological boundary is the Moho surface. The subcrustal

    upper mantle is brittlely deformable under the thermal conditions existing in this zone. Reflection seismic analysis confirms this

    rheological behaviour. There is a strict relationship between the viscosity of the continental lithosphere and seismic reflectivity.

    Sparse reflection packets related to fault zones (mostly of listric geometry) are observed in all the profiles in the crystalline upper

    crust, which in general is seismically transparent. These fault zones dip in different directions and flatten downwards. The lower

    crust is dominated by subhorizontal structures which are suggested by most authors to represent flow deformations. A

    transitional zone, sometimes referred to as the middle crust, occurs at the lower/upper crust boundary. Most listric fault zones die

    out within this part of the crust. It contains intracrustal large-scale lenticular structures, marked by reflection bands. The

    subcrustal upper mantle is characterized by a transparent seismic structure. Therefore, from the rheological point of view, the

    lower crust is a ?weaker? layer closed between the rigid upper crustal zones and the subcrustal lithosphere. Reflection lamination

    results from a process of tectonic deformation that is independent of the petrological stratification of the crust.

    Multilayered stress distribution, proposed in the model of the continental lithosphere, is responsible for the formation of

    seismic structures, and cannot be an effect of the plate tectonic mechanism. The major features of these structures include: (1)

    a layered distribution of the stress field and deformation types; (2) a relatively young age of deformations; and (3) probable

    upward transmission of stresses. These features suggest the involvement of a tectonic process associated with the expansion

    of the Earth. The expansion of the Earth's interior, accompanied by a decrease in the curvature of near-surface layers, could

    give rise to observed stress pattern. The main thesis of the work is the idea of the influence of curvature changes (flattening) of

    the expanding Earth on tectonic processes. This idea was earlier expressed by Hilgenberg (1933), Rickard (1969), Jordan

    (1971), Carey (1976) and Maxlow (1995, 2001). In the upper crust, the first phase of flattening is manifested as the formation

    of compressional crustal structures described in plate tectonics as flake structures or tectonic wedges, and also as crustal

    delamination processes. As expansion accelerates, compressional structures are replaced by extensional structures in some

    areas. The subsequent geological evolution may proceed both towards further extension until the crust breaks, or, in the case

    of the consolidation of the area, towards another compressional phase which can result from the adjustment of the rigid upper

    crust to a new, smaller curvature of the Earth (tectonic inversion). Flattening structures correspond to the ones which are described

    by plate tectonic theory as resulting from so-called membrane tectonics. Flattening tectonics also explains numerous

    strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional structures, palaeomagnetically determined lateral rotations of blocks, the formation

    of oroclines and foldbelts, etc., commonly described in recent literature.

    In the light of the proposed geological interpretation, the seismic structures of the continental lithosphere observed in

    reflection seismic profiles reflect different states of tectonic stresses. Planetary and regional intracrustal detachments occur at

    the lower/upper crust boundary and crust/subcrustal mantle boundary. Extensional stresses are transferred from the upper

    mantle towards the crust. This phenomenon is what we can expect to be the result of the Earth's expansion.