Year: 2009 Pages: 463
This third volume of Ether Space-Time & Cosmology, like the preceding ones, presents works by physicists recognized for their creativity and experience. The subjects covered by them deal with various aspects of the aether concept and its relationship with different fields of fundamental physics, such as quantum theory, dark energy and dark matter, and critical study of the basic assumptions of relativity, among others. This latter study, which was initiated and partly discussed in the first volumes, is of the utmost importance for the development of physics. It is necessary to set the record straight about this point, over which there is still no consensus among physicists.
The rejection of the aether by Einstein in 1905 has had a tremendous influence on the teaching and research in physics from the beginning of the century to the present time. The fact that Einstein reversed his position in 1916 has been almost completely ignored by the physics community. Yet numerous quotations from Einstein show no reservations about his new conviction, for example:
According to the general theory of relativity, space without ether is unthinkable.
There is no doubt that the existence of physical variables, such as permeability and permittivity, would not have any rational explanation if the vacuum was deprived of aether. This is also the case for physical processes such as the Casimir effect and the ability to transmit electromagnetic waves. It is commonly admitted today that the vacuum contains a large amount of energy; how could this be possible without the existence of a medium supporting this energy? This simple fact makes it incomprehensible the denial of the aether by a significant part of the physics community, an entirely ambiguous attitude, since, although the properties assigned to the vacuum require a substratum, this substratum is negated, such that the role and the investigations it deserves are not granted to it. Ignorance of this physical reality, which pervades the entire universe, can only have serious consequences for the development of science. It certainly explains a large part of the difficulties encountered by physics in recent decades, despite its successes.
There are numerous unresolved problems in contemporary physics. The failure to recognize the role of the aether is ignoring a key parameter involved in physical interactions and is source of error. It is comparable to ignoring the action of a magnetic field on iron. Its influence may be relatively weak on certain processes occurring at low absolute speeds where the gamma factor is near unity, but it becomes substantial as speeds reach a significant fraction of the speed of light.
Several experimental and theoretical studies, today, lend support to the existence of a preferred aether frame. In this case, there is no doubt that many physical laws will be revised once the aether is officially recognized, because, due to the fact that meter sticks contract and clocks do not tick at the same rate as a function of their absolute speed, the information they provide varies and they do not allow a reliable assessment of physical data, a fact to be considered especially for processes occurring at high absolute velocities.
Among the many unsolved problems, modern physics is faced with enigmas that conventional theories cannot explain and which bring their contradictions into relief.
Although quantum theory does not officially recognize the ether and therefore does not provide a thorough analysis of all its aspects, it nevertheless deduces from its equations, that the vacuum should contain an enormous amount of energy per cm^3 a fact which is untenable and inconsistent with general relativity. No satisfactory way to make these two theories mutually compatible has been found.
The big bang theory faces a number of unresolved difficulties. Explanations for the dark energy, the physical entity which seems to accelerate the expansion of the universe by its antigravitational effect, have given rise to various theories; most have recourse to the old but revived ad hoc hypothesis known as cosmological constant, whose meaning is not elucidated. Moreover, all attempts made to relate dark energy to the energy of the vacuum have failed, because the calculations based on quantum field theory attribute to this energy a value incommensurable with any value that might explain the accelerating expansion (10^120 times greater). And even though it has eminent defenders, no explanation of dark mass has been accepted by all as yet.
We do not know with any certainty today what dark matter consists of, and we have even less idea what dark energy is. Their very existence is disputed by several authors.
Although their common goal was to unify relativity and quantum theory, string theories differ in the number of dimensions they attribute to space-time, which, in any case, is much higher than the number 4 assumed by relativity. In one of them, the number is 26 dimensions, an assumption that is difficult to justify without any experimental basis to support it.
String theory and superstring theory cannot be made compatible with a positive cosmological constant and the accelerated expansion of the universe without extreme complications. These theories are challenged today by loop quantum theory, which assumes a quantified space-time in contrast to the space-time continuum of general relativity
?Ether space-time and cosmology? program is intended to seek solutions, based
mainly on aether theory, to solve the difficulties encountered by physics
today. Contrary to what is often believed, this project is not in disagreement
with the ideas of eminent founders of modern physics, such as Dirac or
Of course the nature of the aether is difficult to describe, and today there are a number of hypotheses about its composition and properties; but we are convinced that research into the aether will be one of the main objectives of 21stcentury physics, which will enable us to solve a number of paradoxes that now obstruct its progress. Actually some have already been resolved.
I wish to express my gratitude to Michael Duffy for the decisive role he has played in promoting the development of new theories to address the problems facing modern physics.