Year: 2003

*Colloquium "Human Approaches to the Universe" in University of Helsinki, Finland September 26-27, 2003.*

In his lectures on gravitation Richard Feynman stated: "If now we compare this number [total gravitational energy GM^{2}/R] to the total rest energy of the universe, Mc^{2}, lo and behold, we get the amazing result that GM^{2}/R = Mc^{2}, so that the total energy of the universe is zero. ? It is exciting to think that it costs nothing to create a new particle, since we can create it at the center of the universe where it will have a negative gravitational energy equal to Mc^{2}. ? Why this should be so is one of the great mysteries?and therefore one of the important questions of physics. After all, what would be the use of studying physics if the mysteries were not the most important things to investigate?. [Feynman, R., Morinigo,W., Wagner,W., Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63) , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1995), p. 10] and further ?...One intriguing suggestion is that the universe has a structure analogous to that of a spherical surface. If we move in any direction on such a surface, we never meet a boundary or end, yet the surface is bounded and finite. It might be that our three-dimensional space is such a thing, a tridimensional surface of a four sphere. The arrangement and distribution of galaxies in the world that we see would then be something analogous to a distribution of spots on a spherical ball.? [Feynman, R., Morinigo,W., Wagner,W., Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63) , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1995), p. 164] A closer study of Feynman's ?intriguing suggestion of spherically closed space? leads to dynamic space described as a spherically closed structure expanding in the direction of the radius in the fourth dimension. Such solution shows the rest energy of matter as the energy of motion mass has due to the expansion of space in the fourth dimension. The dynamics of space is determined by the balance of motion and gravitation in the structure which explains the ?the great mystery? of the zero-energy condition between gravitational energy and the rest energy of matter in space. Following the zero energy principle, any motion or gravitational state in space becomes related to the motion and gravitational state of whole space. Clocks in motion and clocks near mass centers run slower due to the linkage between the local energetic environment and contribution of whole space. Contrary to the theory of relativity, in dynamic space time and distance can be handled as absolute coordinate quantities.