(See right-hand panel for a full list of scientists, papers, and books)
If one had to pick a single discipline that integrates and unifies all GSF research, the grandfather of them all, it would certainly be electrodynamics. In fact, an overall theme of independent science today might be that our knowledge of electricity and magnetism remains incomplete. In contrast, mainstream science regards electromagnetism as a closed book, something mastered and put to rest in the 19th century under Ampere, Faraday and Maxwell. Why such a dichotomy of opinion? Most independents point to the 1920s, when Einsteinian relativity and quantum mechanics became overnight superstars, and argue that the outstanding problems of that age were swept under the rug or simply ignored in the excitement of the new paradigms. Ironically these two darlings of 20th century physics are demonstrably incompatible, so the science that led to both, electrodynamics, might indeed need reexamination. The GSF agrees that a fresh look at the fundamentals can never do harm, and could lead to a greater synthesis.
Why are electricity and magnetism so fundamental? James Clerk Maxwell's brilliant discovery that "light" behaves as an electromagnetic wave not only unified electricity with magnetism, but also connected them with optics, and thus with all optical experiments like the famous 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment. Einstein's relativity unequivocally rests on certain assumptions about light, and therefore about electromagnetism. Since J. J. Thomson's 1897 discovery of the electron and Ernest Rutherford's 1911 discovery of the positive nucleus, we've known that electrodynamic forces are at work even within the structure of the atom. Many independents today claim that electrodynamics provide the only valid mechanism needed to balance of forces for finite structures to exist at all. The driving forces behind cold fusion and Brown's Gas are electrical. Several innovative theories of gravity claim its ultimate cause from the very structure of atoms, with positive nuclei and negative shells. In fact, most gravitational "anomalies" arise from some sort of magnetic action. And moving from the small to the large, most independent astronomers agree that plasma, non-neutral matter, plays a much larger role in the cosmos than conventional thinking would dictate. Much of the technology and invention in the wake of Nikola Tesla's discoveries involve new concepts of magnetism and its fields. In fact, energy itself can be defined in terms of electromagnetic fields. Low temperature physics invariably involves interesting phenomena connected with magnetic fields. Finally, several independent scientists are discovering connections between electromagnetism and thermodynamics.
As observed under the discussion of Electric Universe, even in the 20th Century, significant developments in electrodynamics have advanced. Yet we still don't really know how magnets work, why iron is ferromagnetic, why nuclei are positively charged. Surprisingly basic questions have yet to receive clear unequivocal answers. It would be foolish to assume that we now have complete knowledge of a subject so foundational, and so rich with surprises.
Publisher: Robert E. French