(See right-hand panel for a full list of scientists, papers, and books)
Publisher: Hobart, Rev. Edition
Publisher: V. R. B. (Kleine der A 4)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The theory of Plate Tectonics is now taught as absolute truth. There are a number of alternative theories. One alternative is that the Earth is expanding in radius size. Hugh Owen believed this. As the head of the Department of Palaeontology of the British Museum he had access to the best ocean floor data and the skill to put it together in an understandible way. He has compiled meticulously detailed sets of maps here showing reconstruction of the Earth going back to 80% of its current radius. There are full world maps for a broad view. There are specific region maps of narrow areas (like the separation of N. America from Africa) that show the exact ocean age dates of expansion. Plate Tectonic theory accepts that the Earth expands at the mid-ocean ridges, but then the theory developed the assumption of "subduction" in 1967 to remove this expansion. Ocean floor drilling was not completed until the 1980's and it did not confirm subduction. The Pacific Basin was surprisingly found to be not far older than the Atlantic Basin (as was expected), but the same age. Dr. Owens ocean data uses the newer data from the 1970's and 1980's. While accepting some subduction, Dr. Owens also shows the need for some expansion and backs up his claims with clear, detailed, graphic evidence.
H.G. Owen's book describes how his attempts to reconstruct the continents in their prehistoric positions resulted in spherical gaps where there should be none. In an effort to resolve this problem he produced this atlas of the continents on a smaller diameter Earth which results in the spherical gaps disappearing.
Publisher: CRC Press
Drawing on contributions from leading proponents of differing methods within biogeography, the book clearly defines the differing, sometimes conflicting, perspectives in the field and their correspondingly different methodological approaches. This gives readers the opportunity to refocus on a range of issues including the role of biological processes such as vicariance, dispersal and extinction in biogeographical explanation, the possibility of biogeographical pattern, and the role of geological reconstructions in biogeographic explanation. The book also explores the discipline?s current relationship with other disciplines and discusses potential developments.
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Publisher: E.G. Service
Publisher: Oneoff Publishing.com
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Publisher: School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania
Websites: www.science.org.au/academy/memoirs/carey.htm en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Warren_Carey
Carey explains how the major features of the earth can be explained by a high rate of earth expansion. He concludes with a tour de force discussion of cosmology. This book is a "must read" for all cosmologists and earth and planetary scientists.
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
PART 1: EDUCTION CONCEPT OF EARTH'S EXPANSION
Spreading in mid-oceanic ridges as evidence for Earth's expansion
Reconstructions of former position of continents
Eduction instead of subduction
Objections against Earth's expansion
EVIDENCES FOR EDUCTION FROM GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS
Deep-sea drilling results
Seismofocal zones and eduction
Tectonic nature of seismofocal zones
Structure of seismofocal zones as provided by seismological data
Explanation of seismological data according to the subduction and eduction viewpoints
Main geological phenomena at the continent-ocean margins from eduction and subduction points of view
DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO EDUCTION CONCEPT OF ITS EXPANSION
Preliminary tectonic comments
The causes of folding
Three types of the Earth's lithosphere
PART 2: GEODETIC AND PALEOMAGNETIC EVIDENCES OF THE EARTH'S EXPANSION
A. DETERMINATION OF THE ANCIENT EARTH'S SIZE BY PALEOMAGNETIC DATA
POSSIBILITIES OF PALEOMAGNETIC DETERMINATIONS
Geological limits in application of paleomagnetic methods of determination of the ancient Earth's size
METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE ANCIENT EARTH'S RADII SUGGESTED BEFORE 1968
The Egyed method
Cox and Doell determinations
The Bilinski method
Khramov et al. determinations
Methods of spherical triangles
The method of comparing intersections of paleomeridians and position of virtual van Hilten's poles
J. Hospers and S.C. van Andel determinations
The Ward statistic method
PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON EARTH EXPANSION
The result view
The Chudinov-Tertitski method and its results
Possibilities of determining the Earth size changing by paleomagnetic data
B. DATA OF THE SPACE GEODESY
SPACE GEODESY AND PLATE TECTONICS
Methods of obtaining data and principles of their processing
The plate model content
The plate model for space geodesy
Space geodesy for the plate model
DEPENDENCY OF CORRELATION BETWEEN PREDICTED AND ESTIMATED VALUES IN SPACE GEODETIC CALCULATIONS ON RANDOM CONDITIONS. VELOCITY VECTORS OF PLATE'S MOTION
Data of space geodetic calculations in literature
Dependency of connections between predicted and estimated velocity vectors of stations on direction of predicted displacement
Graphics of the correlation of absolute values of predicted by the plate tectonics and conceived estimated vectors
VECTORS OF PLATE DISPLACEMENTS COMPARED WITH THE GEOLOGICAL DATA
Areas of active join of continents and oceans
Plate velocity vectors in some regions
MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STATIONS AS EVIDENCES OF EARTH'S EXPANSION
Influence of the neglected Earth expansion on the results of cosmogeodetic calculations
Determination of distances between stations
Changes of distances between stations, predicted on the basis of the plate tectonics and conceived estimated, compared with consequences from the eduction model of the Earth expansion
The plate model and great circles of the Earth sphere
Minimum values of possible expansion of the Earth
Estimation of neglected Earth's expansion from changes of distances between stations
Geometrical estimation of the error of neglected expansion of the Earth
Comparison of indirect estimations of the Earth's expansion velocity by space geodetic data with estimations obtained by other methods
PART 3: ABOVE-SEISMOFOCAL ORE ZONATION AS A CONSEQUENCE OF EDUCTION
RECONSTRUCTION OF ORE-BEARING ABOVE-SEISMOFOCAL ZONES AND THEIR INNER ARRANGEMENT
Reconstruction of location of ancient seismofocal zones
Above-paleoseismofocal ore zones within ore belts
Succession of above-seismofocal ore zones within ore belts
ORIGIN OF ORE-BEARING ZONES
Changes in character of ore compounds in ore zones
Boiling points of ore compounds
The fabric of ore formation due to eduction
Eduction verus subduction
Publisher: Cetos Publishing
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Publisher: Alex A. Scarborough
ISBN: NA (Pamphlet)
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Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Publisher: Institute of the Expanding Earth
Publisher: Published for the Planetary Development Group, Tree Crops Centre by Cornucopia Press
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
Paraphrasing Thomas Kuhn in his Structure of Scientific Revolutions, there can be no change in direction of scientific thought unless there is a viable alternative. Now after 35 years of persistent research, the author's plethora of substantiated evidence offers science a valid alternative to the Big Bang: the LB-FLINE-BEC model of universal origins, one that fulfills Einstein's prediction, and meets Kuhn's criteria.
In fulfilling both predictions, the new model reveals a plethora of impossibilities comprising the Big Bang myth, while forming powerful arguments for relegating the Big Bang to the ashes of history.
The revolutionary model, a macroscopic theory of everything, is ideal for a microscopic Theory of Everything. Thomas Huxley stated it best: "The microcosm repeats the macrocosm," a connection placing science in a favorable position for attaining the long-sought Theory of Everything.
As long as the Big Bang/Accretion hypotheses remain in vogue, comprehending universal origins and functions will remain impossible. In sharp contrast, the new model alternative opens floodgates to definitive evidence of universal origins and functions.
Why, in the Big Bang perspective, substantiated solutions to universal anomalies will always remain unattainable, while in the LB-FLINE-BEC perspective, substantiated solutions to universal anomalies are readily attainable? Three simple and beautiful examples (out of many):
- The dynamic fiery, geometrical spacing of planets in elliptical orbits.
- Why Pluto was originally the tenth planet in our Solar System, and now is the ninth planet.
- Why extra-solar systems are weirdly different from our geometrically-spaced Solar System.
"Scarborough leaves no holes in his persuasive argument. His impeccable logic, accurate facts, and sound evidence rewrite dogma in a manner that would stifle almost any attempt at a rebuttal." -- Dimitri Veras, YALE SCIENTIFIC
"I read the book several times, and find it to be the most brilliant and fascinating work I have seen in many years." -- Brigadier General Gordon G. Carson III (Ret)
"...a factual, easy-to-understand concept that makes a lot of sense. It provides answers to scientists who rethink current beliefs about planetary origins and evolution." -- Dr. Morton Reed, Professor of Thermodynamics
"We must forsake such beliefs that Earth and the Universe are flat, that active planetary cores are iron, rock, or metal, that hydrocarbon fuels were made from fossils, that energy is finite, that Pluto is not a planet, that planets are created from gaseous dust-clouds, and that comets are dirty snowballs. Such concepts too long have misled scientists down blind alleys." -- Alexander Alan Scarborough, Author
Publisher: Oran V. Siler Printing
This book refutes the standard beliefs in Meteor Impacts such as Chicxulub.
Dr. Dan Bridges, a petroleum geologist, in this book focuses primarily on examining what the world believes are Meteor Impact sites such as the famous Chicxulub site in the Yucatan believed to be the cause of the dinosaur demise 65 MA years ago. Dan is convinced and shows that most of these sites are volcanic in origin from forces below, and that Chicxulub in particular was a super volcano.
I believe he is correct. For me, just looking at the Chicxulub site location says it was a super volcano. If a meteor hit the earth it would have a ~30% chance of hitting entirely on land and a ~70% chance of hitting entirely in the ocean. The Expanding Earth Theory would say that land gets stretched apart and causes weak zones, such as the continental shelves. Chicxulub is partly on land, partly on water and straddles evenly the very thin continental shelf, a weak zone. Highly unlikely for a meteor hit. So just visually, likely a super-volcano. (Use Google Images to search for ?Chicxulub? for additional pictures.)
This is the same surprising visual location of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater Site ( ? another theoretical crater impact site). One impact site, perhaps, but not two on the continental shelf separated by 30 million years. Volcanic origins must be considered. Click here to see Wikimedia Commons images of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater Site.
This book lists many of the supposed impact sites for reappraisal. Most of these sites developed due to explosive high pressure gaseous emissions from deep within the Earth. Dr. Bridges also provides an inclusive history of the Expanding Earth Theories. He believes in the Expanding Earth but has trouble accepting ?mass creation? in the core (eg Carey and this web-site). He therefore supports a previously ultra dense earth that expanded with an increase in gravity over time. The book is highly technical but the average reader can skim those parts and gain invaluable evidence on ?meteor? sites for his deep pressure theories. This book should be available in every Geology library and read by those who feel dinosaurs did not end in one brief moment of time. Since the ?Cause? was the expanded earth, a publisher couldn?t be found and so the book was self published and is difficult to obtain. ?KW
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Earth's gravity has been increased from past up to now and it's increasing yet. Increasing of gravity affects on animates of earth. You'll understand the relation between increase of earth's gravity and animates evolution, and affects of increasing of earth's gravity on blood circulation system. You'll know how animals overcome with increasing of earth's gravity by developing more of blood circulation system and can enlarge their bodies. You'll realize to the relation between extinction of dinosaurs and increasing of earth's gravity in this book too and will read a summary of fact of increasing of earth's gravity.
1. Why the insects have so small sizes?
2. Dose the force of gravity increase?
3. Plants, other witnesses for the increase of gravity
4. Megatherium and the increase of gravity
5. How can the gravity increase?
6. Gravity variation from the equator to poles?
7. The sea animals and the increase of gravity
8. The relationship between the blood system and air pressure
9. The extinction of dinosaurs and the gravity increase
10. The circulatory system in zero gravity
11. Why did the previous mammals have small bodies?
12. Why the body size of the mammals are different?
13: Relationship between Pressure & Growth speed
14: If the Earth Expanded, where did all the extra mass come from?
15: A physical question
16: New Hearts in the future
18: The new class of animals
19: Why the body of Coelacanth grow several time?
20: The relation between blood circulation system and animals body size
21: Were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded?
22: The method of finding gravity in the past time
23: The graph of land animals' size during the time
25: Big Bang or Steady-state universe
26: Are the cells, the establishing unit of our body?
27: Ramin Mardfar & Dr. Simon Maddrell (July 2008)
28: How can a sheep be grown as large as a cow?
29: Ramin Mardfar & Prof.Dr.Dominique Adriaens
Despite the progress of science in different scientific fields, there are so many unanswered questions about paleontology, geology and zoology. So many theories have been posed to answer this question, but they could not be accepted by scientists, as they should be. These kinds of question include: the causes of the extinction of dinosaurs, the causes of extinction of different species of animals in past era, the causes of the extinction of primitive giant plants belonged to carbonifer period, the causes of having small bodies for some animals and large bodies for the others, the reason why animals can not grow more than their present size and which factor prevents them to grow more, the reason, why some sea mammals come to coast and die there, the causes of physiologic changes when the gravity is zero, the causes of eruption and outflow of molten materials from the ocean beds, the causes of insufficient growth of some animals and their early sexual maturity and other questions like these.
These are the questions, which are not answered by scientists of different sciences. Although they have tried to solve them with detailed and long experiments, but they could not find clear and simple answers.
The theory of the increase of gravity tries to find satisfactory answers to these questions by using the phenomenon of increase of gravity and by citing evidences. Obviously, a theory is not able to solve all the problems clearly and without mistakes, at first, and they need more discussion and criticism to be solved. However, this theory tries to find logical answer to these questions as far as possible.
So far there have been no discussion that whether the gravity has changed by the passage of time or it has remained unchanged. And so far no one claimed that the gravity have been unchanged and fixed during the past periods up to now. May be it is better to have a careful look at this theory and consider the evidences and proofs carefully, perhaps this theory can be able to pave the way for us and help us and help us to reach our main goal which is the improvement of our knowledge.
In our society the important invention, the scientific value of which is obvious, are accepted by the majority soon, and have a lot of materialistic value for their owners, but those who discover the main principles and scientific basis, do not receive any reward and sometimes their life comes to its end, while not only they have seen no reward but also no one has understood their purpose. But instead, when another invention, comes to market, the fame first group disappears, while the fame of the second group increase, and the importance of the scientific principle increases by the increase of its numbers and its number of applications.In our society the important invention, the scientific value of which is obvious, are accepted by the majority soon, and have a lot of materialistic value for their owners, but those who discover the main principles and scientific basis, do not receive any reward and sometimes their life comes to its end, while not only they have seen no reward but also no one has understood their purpose. But instead, when another invention, comes to market, the fame first group disappears, while the fame of the second group increase, and the importance of the scientific principle increases by the increase of its numbers and its number of applications.
The people who have a lot of knowledge and not adopt their knowledge with each other and also do not relate them with each other, although simple-minded people consider them scientists, but in fact they have no difference with simple ignorant people, and these irrelevant knowledge?s have no value. When the knowledge is adopted by a regular and unified growth and is harmonious, it can be called integrated knowledge. This kind of knowledge can not be obtained by the accumulation of some information and assembling of large or small and irrelevant rules, rather they should be studied and analyzed with meekness, so the brain can choose and absorb whatever it needs. When the knowledge and information becomes exclusive and complicated the necessity of their unity of them is being sesed more. If a nervy person can not be found to do such a thing, the world of sciences will be impregnable very soon. Now there are so many proficient who, like a bee are not aware of the work that they are doing. They work very eagerly at a corner and also their work is very useful. But the science is not specific to the results of their individual work.
The growth of the science is like the growth of a living creature; some people should take the trouble of them, and should integrate and combine, so that can successfully unify them. If there is no attempt to collect and unify the knowledge's, the separated scientific facts and small theories will increase, but the science will disappear per se. The person who takes the trouble to understand the very complicated parts of science and to culminate, is like a passerby who watches the desert and whatever is in it, from a mountaintop, the hills with their strange shapes and the thick forests will no more bewilder him, and he can see all of them from the top of the mountain and none of them will prevent the other ones from being seen by him, and he can see all of them and can differentiate and recognize their relationships. It is not necessary for integrated to be broader than other specific sciences, Because the person who wants to acquire it, do not try to be aware of the punctilios and the mysteries which are allocated to exclusive knowledge or don't want to fill his brain with them.
Most of the punctilios which are acquired by the expert scientist a hard work, is of no importance for a comprehensive scientist. As the drawing of the watercourse of a river is very simple for a drawer, to discover which a lot of people have worked very hard. Also for a comprehensive scientist, the record of scientific facts and thoughts is very simple; every one of which is the result of the hard work and intelligence of scientists. But most of scientists prefer not go beyond the experiments and experience, But whatever they become more doubtful, and very soon the most expedient attempts to acquire experimental knowledge, looks like an accidental event for them.
When we compare the determined decision and attempt of a comprehensive scientist with other people's hesitation, we may consider him as a hero. Frankly, in this affair there is some heroic aspect, because it has an aspect of adventure. Exclusive researches usually do not face with failure, because their results are immediate and bring relief. An astronomer who extracts correct calendar for us, and a chemist who provides the colors for us as well as a baker who brings the bread of the oven, is aware of the result of his work, and also to write the cards regularly and putting them in their places carefully or to set the row of the insects and seashells and writing notes and articles about them is satisfactory for most of people. They know that their work will remain forever, because they provide the materials, which are the basis of any scientific compound, by the passage of time the buildings are built with these materials, and perhaps the building will be destroyed but the materials remain! Most of scientists stop here, that are they providing the material but do not build the building. I suppose that they afraid of bewildering and don't go forward following their natural instinct. They have right not to go forward, but the thought that every where they become bewildered, all of them will be involved in this situation, is wrong. If it said that the theories of a comprehensive scientist precede his experiences, the answer is that, this drawback is true about all other scientific theories and the person who poses a theory, should not be questioned that if he himself has tested it or not. "George Sarton "
Publisher: One Off Publishing
With the recent release of the book "Terra non Firma Earth. Plate Tectonics is a Myth." by Dr. James Maxlow, Terrella Press has adopted a policy of supporting and recognizing Earth Expansion as a viable alternative to the Plate Tectonics theory.
Readers who attended the NEXUS Conference in Brisbane last September were treated to a talk by geologist Dr. James Maxlow on the Expanding Earth hypothesis, set off by full-colour graphics and animations courtesy of partner Antia Maxlow.
Conference-goers and other NEXUS readers out there will be very interested in Dr. Maxlow's new book, Terra Non Firma Earth, which fills in the geological knowledge that plate tectonics can't, such as resolving coastline topography fits between continents across ocean expanses. Produced in a large format on glossy stock, it features a series of awe-inspiring, full-colour graphics of key developments in the long history of Earths expansion (see previous articles in NEXUS 7/06 and 8/03).
Dr. Maxlow was originally spurred on in this work when he intuited that a huge dome structure, hundreds of kilometers in diameter, that he observed in the Pilbara region of Western Australia may be a remnant of a much-smaller-radius Earth. His text reflects the depth of his research into such fundamentals as the "geological crustal budget" and changing Earth parameters of mass, density and surface gravity, as well as into the evolution of continents and seas/oceans. Bringing together geological, paleomagnetic,space geodetic, geographical, biological and climatic evidence, Maxlow presents a well-argued case for Earth expansion over plate tectonics as the major mechanism for planetary geological development.
James Maxlow dedicates his book to the memory of Professor Sam Carey, the father of modern Earth Expansion theory who died in 2002. He is doing a great service by taking Prof. Carey's research forward despite the obstacles from acidemia. (See a precis of Dr. James Maxlow's Expanding Earth thesis in Science News this issue.)
Publisher: Benchmark Publishing & Design
San Diego CA
Solar System, Expanding Earth, Nuclear Fission, Cosmology
Died: March 20, 2002
Died: January 27, 1987