The perspective issue in the work of Galileo, its impact on the new art of perspectives in the Renaissance, the new post-Copernican moon and the tense relationships with the Catholic Church are evaluated.
"Past products of artistic activity are still part and parcel of the artistic scene. [...] In Science, new things start with the abolishment of books and scientific journals, now turned obsolete, and the elimination of their active stance in a Science Library, removed to a barn [...] In contrast to Art, Science destroys its own past." (KUHN, 1993, p. 370)
We present the history of estimates of the temperature of intergalactic space. We begin with the works of Guillaume and Eddington on the temperature of interstellar space due to starlight belonging to our Milky Way galaxy. Then we discuss works relating to cosmic radiation, concentrating on Regener and Nernst. We also discuss Finlay-Freundlich's and Max Born's important research on this topic. Finally, we present the work of Gamow and collaborators. We show that the models based on a Universe in dynamical equilibrium without expansion predicted the 2.7 K temperature prior to and better than models based on the Big Bang.