Basically, C arises, along with all the other topics in the title from relative motion of charged particles. In 1893, J.J. Thomson showed theoretically that C should be the limiting speed of a charged particle. He attributed this to an increase of mass of the particle with speed. Weberian Electrodynamics is based on the relative motion of charged particles, and accounts for the radiation from accelerated charged particles. A. Einstein is incorrect in stating that the speed of light in free space is not affected by the speed of the source. This is shown by the "red shift" of the spectrum of stars that are moving away from the earth-bound observer.
In this centennial year of Albert Einstein?s paper ?Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper?, it seems pertinent to ask what possessed Einstein to write this paper. He stated two reasons: first, he wanted to resolve the ?asymmetries? of the explanation of relative move-ments of a magnet and a conductor; second, he wanted to show that the speed of light in free space is independent of the motion of the emitter. This paper shows that his explanation of the ?asymmetries? was vague, and that he presented an incorrect equation in his ?proof? of the second objective.
In 1805, Einstein noted that a spherical wave at a speed of light has the equation x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2. But the proper derivation yields 3c2t2 on the right-hand side of the equation. This error has been perpetuated until the present day. A well known College physics textbook, for example, derives the Lorentz Transformations of length and time starting from the above equation. All the various derivations of the mass variation with speed in STR are based on these Lorentz Transformations. A few comments are made on the thermodynamics of mass increase with speed.
If neutrinos have any mass, they could cause gravity, for example in the earth-moon system, by being preferentially absorbed by the earth, thus leading to a smaller number of neutrinos hilling the moon on the "space ward" side. It is shown that a minuscule effect would be produced in the temperature and in the increase of the mass of the moon. The increase of the mass would change the period of the moon's orbit, but would be too small to overcome tidal effects. Calculations are made on these effects, for various potential neutrino speeds and percentages absorbed.
If the ratio e/m of a charged particle decreases with the increasing speed of the particle, does the mass increase. or the charge decrease, or some other effect occur? This paper examines the potential consequences of charge decrease with increasing speed, including possible explanations of cyclotron radiation, cosmic rays. and a modified Weber Force. By means of the experiment outlined in the paper, it should be possible to determine if the charge does decrease with increasing speed.