Abstracts Details

Starting with the empirical observation that mass increases with speed (as predicted by Einstein) and the Hartree unit of length *a* (the idealized Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom) it is shown that the contraction of the radius of the hydrogen atom, with velocity of the hydrogen atom, is independent of the velocity direction. Therefore, this model leads to the expectation that the FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction will occur equally in all three orthogonal directions, not just the direction of the velocity

Starting with h as a quantum of angular momentum rather than a quantum of action, an alternate quantum physics is developed. Physical models are proposed for the electron, proton, neutron, and neutrino based upon dipotes consisting of two massless point charges (each devoid of intrinsic energy) of equal and opposite sign directly related to the fine‐structure constant α. These dipoles rotate and translate (or oscillate) in two orthogonal directions simultaneously at the velocity of light. A third massless point charge, equal to the net charge, is associated with the electron and the proton. Because these elementary particles, electrons, protons, etc., possess angular momentum, each can exist in two nonsuperimposable forms corresponding to a left‐handed form and a right‐handed form which are not interchangeable. The internal energy of each of these elementary particles is equally divided between rotational energy and translational energy. doi:10.4006/1.3028884

Plank's constant *h (*or better *h/2[]) *is reinterpreted as a quantum of angular momentum instead of a quantum of action. The photon with its quantum of angular momentum [] is shown to be the mediator of low energy quantum physics. Action is identified as angular momentum and the principle of least action is construed to be the conservation of angular momentum.*

*A ^{ }rotating dipole model of the photon is proposed with massless^{ }point charges (2*c

*)*c

^{1/2−}and (2*)*e

^{1/2+}(16.55^{−}

*and 16.55*e

^{+},

*respectively), which*/

^{ }are*distance apart. This model quantitatively accounts for the*.

^{ }linear momentum, angular momentum, translational energy, rotational energy, total energy,^{ }and wavelength of the photon inside of Newtonian- Maxwellian mechanics^{ }and provides a physical mechanism for electromagnetic mass. In this^{ }model the photon has both particle and wave characteristics