Abstracts Details

The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all space and matter, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and positrons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two independent but superimposed principles. The first of these principles is that their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a ‘magnetic line of force’. The second principle arises when large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed on the electron-positron sea, hence causing the tiny vortices to become linearly polarized. This will result in a ‘couple force’ acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied aether flow lines. Centrifugal pressure will therefore act at right angles, both to solenoidal magnetic lines of force, and also to radial electric and gravitational lines of force.

In the dynamic state, the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating either in magnitude or direction (precession). This angular acceleration will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum constitutes electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.

The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all space and matter, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and positrons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two independent but superimposed principles. The first of these principles is that their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a ‘magnetic line of force’. The second principle arises when large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed on the electron-positron sea, hence causing the tiny vortices to become linearly polarized. This will result in a ‘couple force’ acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied aether flow lines. Centrifugal pressure will therefore act at right angles, both to solenoidal magnetic lines of force, and also to radial electric and gravitational lines of force.

In the dynamic state, the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating either in magnitude or direction (precession). This angular acceleration will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum constitutes electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.

In 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis wrote a paper in which he mathematically derived equations of motion for rotating coordinate systems [1]. In this paper he drew attention to two categories of supplementary forces. Coriolis referred to these forces in the plural. The forces in the first category were the ordinary centrifugal forces, while the forces in the second category were described as being equal to twice the product of the angular velocity of the mobile plane, taken with respect to the relative momentum as projected unto that plane. By analogy with the mathematical formula for the ordinary centrifugal forces, Coriolis called this second category of supplementary forces ‘The compound centrifugal forces’. This paper aims to establish the fundamental physical cause behind centrifugal force as well as its connection with the medium for the propagation of light.

The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all matter and space, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and positrons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two superimposed principles. Their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a ?magnetic line of force'. When large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed, the tiny vortices will become linearly polarized. This will result in a ?couple force' acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied field lines. Centrifugal pressure therefore acts at right angles to both magnetic and electric lines of force. In the dynamic state the alignment of the dipoles is undergoing change and the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating, either in magnitude or direction (precession). This realignment will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum is electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.

Poynting?s theorem applies to wireless telegraphy as well as to electric circuits and cable telegraphy. We will therefore seek to establish the commonality between these three phenomena.

Two electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the same wire in a transmission line appear to pass right through each other. We therefore require a theory of electric current that can account for this, while at the same time maintaining consistency with Amp?re's circuital law.

While on the one hand it may seem valid to argue that the wave behavior of light requires the existence of a dense dielectric medium, it is equally valid to counter-argue on the other hand that such a particulate medium would cause friction in planetary motion. The double helix rescues us from this dilemma. This most fundamental pattern in nature converts potential frictional effects into the more ordered inertial effects that we recognize as the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force. A state of Brownian motion, when pervaded by double helix patterns, channels a distinct electrostatic force of attraction directly between unlike magnetic poles in an electrically neutral backdrop, and it can also create a hovercraft effect for the planets orbiting in space.

James Clerk-Maxwell is credited with having brought electricity, magnetism, and optical phenomena, together into one unified theory. The details of what exactly he did were however seriously distorted in twentieth century physics textbooks. Maxwell is most famous in connection with a set of equations which bear his name, but these equations have been totally removed from the physical context within which Maxwell was working, and outside of that physical context the full meaning of these equations is lost. Maxwell was working within the context of a sea of tiny aethereal vortices pressing against each other with centrifugal force. The centrifugal force bit was crucial for explaining magnetic repulsion, yet both centrifugal force and aether are stringently denied by modern physicists who nevertheless continue to hail Maxwell for the equations that he derived by using these very concepts which they deny. This irony seems to be explained at least in part because they think that the equations can be re-derived using Einstein's special theory of relativity. Such an erroneous belief stems from the fact that one of the most important of Maxwell's equations has been wrongly credited to Lorentz and referred to as the Lorentz force law and treated as ?supplementary' to Maxwell's equations. Einstein, being ignorant of Maxwell's original equations and the fact that they contained the Lorentz force law, hence wrongly believed that the equations contained no convective term, and so he made the erroneous conclusion that Maxwell's equations mean that the speed of light must be frame independent in contradiction of classical principles of vector addition of velocities. This erroneous conclusion led Einstein to his special theory of relativity in 1905, and it subsequently led to the erroneous belief amongst both relativists and many anti-relativists, that Einstein's special theory of relativity follows naturally from Maxwell's theory, when in fact Maxwell and Einstein were not even remotely working along the same lines.

Although Maxwell's most important equations had already appeared throughout his seminal paper entitled ** "On Physical Lines of Force"**, which was written in1861 in Great Britain, it was not until 1864 that Maxwell created a distinct listing of

**equations in a section entitled**

*eight**"General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field‟*in his follow up paper entitled

**. While Maxwell refers to**

*"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field"***equations at the end of this section, there are in fact only eight equations as such. Maxwell arrives at the figure of twenty because he splits six of these equations into their three Cartesian components. Maxwell's eight original equations will be discussed in depth in individual sections throughout this paper.**

*twenty*In the nineteenth century, James Clerk-Maxwell was unable to explain the linkage between gravity and electromagnetism. He realized that gravitational lines of force must involve a pressure, as is the case with magnetic lines of force when they are involved in mutual repulsion. He also realized that the pressure in the magnetic lines of force acts laterally due to centrifugal force in a sea of molecular vortices, but he couldn't seem to similarly explain the pressure in the gravitational lines of force [1]. It will now be suggested that gravitational lines of force are actually lines of tension, and that Maxwell's molecular vortices are dielectric in nature. The linear polarization of these dipolar vortices, caused by the gravitational field, will increase the centrifugal pressure which is exerted laterally, and this pressure will result in a repulsive force in competition with the attractive force. The attractive force, being a monopole field, will obey the inverse square law, whereas the repulsive force, being a dipole field, will obey the inverse cube law. Hence if the charge of an object increases, the inverse cube law relationship for the surrounding repulsive force field will lead to a reversal threshold, where it will dominate over the attractive force. The charge can increase electrostatically or because of inertia. In the latter case, the repulsive force field is the large scale centrifugal force.

It is commonly taught nowadays that centrifugal force doesn't exist, except as a fictitious force that is only observable from a rotating frame of reference. This belief is based on Newton's law of inertia which states that a body undergoing straight line motion at constant speed experiences no net force, and that curved path motion involves only a centripetal force. However, if we split the net zero force of straight line constant speed motion into polar components, we find that one of these is a centrifugal force component which can physically react with constraints, hence revealing an underlying pressure associated with inertia. Further evidence that centrifugal force is a real physical force arises when inertial pressure becomes asymmetrical, as happens in a radial gravitational field or in a solenoidal magnetic field.

The Coriolis force is generally associated with the Earth's rotation, although it can arise in connection with any kind of rotation. In a paper which he wrote in 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to it as the *"compound centrifugal force"*, and that is exactly what it is. It is a compound inertial force which results when a compound motion causes two opposing centrifugal pressures to press differentially on either side of an object. When an object moves through the medium for the propagation of light, this induces an inertial pressure around the object which is manifested as kinetic energy. When this inertial pressure is asymmetrical, such as is the case in a radial or in a solenoidal field, the asymmetry is manifested as an inertial force. In meteorology, the asymmetry which leads to the Coriolis force being induced in cyclones is complicated by the fact that there are two centres of rotation involved, and hence we are dealing with a double Coriolis force. With the double Coriolis force in meteorology, there is the rotation that is centred on the Earth, and there is also the rotation that is centred on the cyclone itself.

It is nowadays taught that *centrifugal *force is a fictitious force that can only be observed from a rotating frame of reference. This teaching is based on the argument that when no inward *centripetal *force is acting, a particle will proceed in its straight line inertial path. In situations where the physical effects of centrifugal force are detected, this is dismissed as being merely the effects of inertia. Polar coordinates relative to a point origin expose a centrifugal force acting on a particle that is moving in a straight line, but this centrifugal force tends to be masked from view by virtue of the fact that the radial position vector is rotating. This article will examine ways to expose the physical reality of the centrifugal force

This article examines a situation in which two completely separate centrifugal forces are acting within a single rotating system. One centrifugal force relates to the rotation axis of the rotating system, while the other centrifugal force relates to the centre of the Earth and the horizontal transverse speeds within the rotating system. The latter has the power to cause an object to rise vertically in defiance of gravity.

When a mooring line needs to be cast from ship to shore over a lengthy distance, this can be accomplished by utilizing the concept of centrifugal potential energy. Swinging the weight in circular motion in a vertical plane, and building it up to a high angular speed is a means of storing up pressure. The weight can then be released underarm, resulting in a projectile with kinetic energy corresponding to the stored centrifugal potential energy. We can of course choose to deny the existence of this centrifugal pressure and explain the phenomenon on the grounds that we are merely witnessing the tendency of an object to move in a straight line in the absence of an applied force. But we can only indulge in this denial in the absence of a radial or a solenoidal field, and such fields exist everywhere. It will now be shown how centrifugal force corresponds to positive electric charge, kinetic energy, and inertia, and how a magnetic field is a particular manifestation of inertia.

The Coriolis force is induced by a compound motion involving two independent yet physically connected motions, one of which is linear and the other which must be of a rotatory nature. In a paper which he wrote in 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to it as the *"compound centrifugal force"*. Just like centrifugal force, it acts to deflect an element perpendicularly to its path of motion, but its mathematical expression is exactly twice that of the simple centrifugal force. It is commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting the effect of gravity on a comet, reversing a rotating rattleback (Celtic stone), preventing a pivoted spinning gyroscope from toppling under the force of gravity, and driving an electric current in a wire that is moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field. The origins of the Coriolis force will now be traced to differential centrifugal pressure and differential vorticity in the dense background sea of tiny aether vortices which serves as the medium for the propagation of light.

It is generally accepted that the tidal force arises from an inverse cube law field. However, it is wrongly believed that this inverse cube law field is the product of differential gravity. The lunar and solar orbits are nearly circular, and as such, gravity cannot be a factor in the tides, because it will have been nullified by centrifugal force. We need to look to a non-convective pressure force which squeezes the planets at the sides, such that if the planets were to be made of pure liquid, they would be shaped like an ellipsoid aligned along the direction which joins the two mutually orbiting bodies.

The rattleback (Celtic Stone) is the most mysterious phenomenon in classical mechanics. It reverses its angular momentum by inducing a Coriolis pressure from the dense background sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles which is the medium for the propagation of light.

Electrostatics is dipolar, gravity is monopolar, and magnetism is ostensibly non-polar. Any unified field theory will therefore have to explain how to reconcile these three distinct characteristics. The common link between all of these phenomena is the fact that they are all a consequence of aether flow. It only remains to establish the arrangement of the aether sources and the aether sinks in space, that simultaneously gives rise to all three of these phenomena. The solution is found by activating James Clerk-Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices. The electric particles that surrounded Maxwell's aethereal vortices become sources (positrons) and sinks (electrons), and this gives rise to fine-grained double helix patterns in space that trace out magnetic lines of force

The inertial path alone is a sufficient basis from which we can deduce the existence of a dielectric luminiferous medium. The additional observation that magnetic lines of force break and rejoin in the dynamic state is a sufficient basis from which we can further deduce that the positive and negative particles in the luminiferous medium must be arranged in a double helix fashion around the magnetic lines of force.

The centrifugal force is heavily involved in electromagnetism. It is involved in the magnetic force that acts on a current carrying wire and it is also involved in the electromotive force that induces an electric current in a wire that is moving in a magnetic field. In the former case it is a simple centrifugal force of the kind that keeps the planets in orbit, whereas in the latter case it is a compound centrifugal force which bears close similarities to the transverse Coriolis force that acts in non-circular planetary orbits and in all vortex phenomena.

This article looks at the mechanism of the rotating electron-positron dipole. It is like a key, which when turned by a torque, produces a fountain of aether pressure which is the source of all mass, energy, and angular momentum.

Kepler's law of areal velocity ruled out Descartes' planetary vortex theory. Large scale net tangential force and most large scale vorticity is absorbed into the tiny rotating electronpositron vortices of the magnetic field. This segregates the rotational centrifugal pressure that is radiated outwards from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation, from the irrotational centrifugal pressure that is generated inertially in the electron-positron sea at the interface between the gravitational field of the planets and the gravitational field of the Sun, and which holds the planets up in their orbits.

Faraday?'s law of electromagnetic induction and Kepler'fs law of areal velocity are two manifestations of a single principle which requires two distinct phenomena for its full understanding. The former is an expression for the rate of change of angular momentum, with particular reference to the sea of tiny molecular vortices which acts as the domain of the electromagnetic field. The latter expresses conservation of angular momentum in situations in which there is no net tangential force in that same sea of molecular vortices. The single principle which lies behind these two laws needs to be split into two distinct phenomena for the full understanding of the principle. These two phenomena are Coriolis force vXH and angular force ??A/??t. The Coriolis force that is observed in all vortex phenomena is a constituent part of the general principle that underlies both Faraday?'s law and Kepler'fs second law. It is a hydrodynamical effect.

A rolling wheel is driven forwards by virtue of the linear momentum in the upper half of the wheel. A closer examination of the forces involved will reveal the hand of the centrifugal force. The analysis also provides a visual aid to understanding the basic principles of electromagnetism.

Centrifugal force is the outward radial expansion that arises in connection with absolute rotation. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) demonstrated that centrifugal force obeys an inverse cube law relationship when angular momentum is conserved. This reveals the dielectric nature of space, since we know that the inverse cube law relationship is associated with an electric dipole force field. It will now be proposed that space is densely packed with dipolar aethereal vortices that act like tiny Archimedes? screws, and that centrifugal force is the aether pressure that is drawn up when these vortices are linearly stretched or angularly accelerated. When a compound variety of centrifugal force acts in either the transverse direction or the axial direction, it will be known as the 'Coriolis Force'.

Gravity and electricity are both manifestations of aether flow. They differ only in the respect that gravity is a rarefied flow that gives rise to a tension/pull force, whereas electricity is a pressurized flow. A thunder cloud collects and stores aether from the gravitational inflow and releases it again under pressure in the form of electricity. One might say that a thunder cloud is a reservoir that collects gravity and releases it again in the form of bolts of lightning. It will further be suggested that auroras are gravitationally powered fluorescent lights which operate when the magnetic field is at an optimum orientation.

In electromagnetism, Lenz's law states that the direction of an induced electric current is such as to oppose the change that causes it. Lenz's law would therefore appear to be closely related to the law of conservation of energy, apart from the fact that it operates in conjunction with non-conservative forces. It will now be shown that Lenz's law is a manifestation of the ongoing transfusion of aether between the positron sources and the electron sinks of the luminiferous medium. Energy in the form of pressurized aether is drawn up from the luminiferous medium by a pumping mechanism which sometimes resembles an Archimedes' screw. This pumping mechanism will involve the simultaneous sinking of already existing pressurized aether.

Modern classical mechanics has failed to explain the preferred direction of spin and the reversal torque in the rattleback. This is because three of the hydrodynamical aethereal forces are denied, and the relevant torque is probably to be found amongst these three forces.

The three denied aethereal forces are the centrifugal force (G2), the Coriolis force **v**x**H** (G3), and the angular ??A/??t force (G4). The **v**x**H** force and the ??**A**/??t force occur in tandem on the fine-grain level in electromagnetic induction. On the large scale, G3 accounts for the force that prevents a pivoted gyroscope from toppling over. On the fine-grain level G2 accounts for magnetic repulsion, and on the large scale it accounts for why the Moon doesn't fall to the Earth.

Equation (5) in Maxwell?'s 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force' will be examined in order to try and ascertain which of the G forces might be responsible for the torque that brings a spinning rigid body into line with its preferred axis of symmetry and also with its preferred direction of spin if it has one.

During a collision, momentum is always conserved. The large scale kinetic energy on the other hand, may or may not be conserved.

When kinetic energy on the large scale is conserved during a collision, we say that the situation is matched. It will be concluded that a matched collision involves only a large scale pulse of aether with a prodigious speed that is many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of light, and maybe even instantaneous. An unmatched collision on the other hand will involve both a large scale aether pulse as well as a microscopic particle compression wave with a finite speed in the order of the speed of sound.

This aether pulse, which we will call a vitreous pulse, is a compression wave of aether involving an actual net aether flow that moves through a rigid body and causes large scale acceleration. This large scale acceleration is due to an aethereal force which we will call G5.

Wave/particle duality can be understood in terms of a cricket ball that has got an inbuilt oscillator that makes it expand and contract. When such a cricket ball moves in a trajectory, we can plot a sinusoidal graph of its diameter against either time or distance travelled. We will have all the mathematics of a wave motion even though we are actually dealing with a particle motion. In electromagnetic radiation we have a coherent flow of aether whose density changes cyclically in relation to both the frequency of the emission source, and also in relation to the vortex flow through the rotating electron-positron dipoles of the electric sea. This cyclic alternation in aether density can lead to the wave characteristics that are associated with constructive and destructive interference. Cathode rays are also known to exhibit constructive and destructive interference and so we will now examine what the cause might be that explains the associated cyclic pressure alternations.

In earlier articles of this series, electrostatic repulsion has been associated with fine-grained centrifugal pressure in the linearly polarized electron-positron sea. Magnetic repulsion has also been associated with fine-grained centrifugal pressure in the magnetized electron-positron sea. There is however a major difference between the two cases. An increase in magnetization results in an increase in vorticity **H**, whereas an increase in linear polarization does not result in an increase in vorticity **H**.

This article takes a closer look at the linear polarization mechanism for rotating electron-positron dipoles and concludes that the internal opposing force involves a centrifugal aether pressure that is induced as a result of the electrons and the positrons coming closer together on average, along the line of action.

Cathode rays, gravity, and electromagnetic radiation are all manifestations of pure aether flow. The substance of the aether itself can never be explained, because the entire language of physics is built upon the effects of the aether. We can nevertheless deduce that the aether exists by the fact that we can model the forces of nature hydrodynamically using the concept of space being dynamical, compressible, and stretchable. We will call this dynamic space the 'aether'. By extrapolation we can then further deduce that cathode rays, gravity, and electromagnetic radiation necessarily involve a net flow of this dynamical space. We will now take a closer look at each of these three manifestations of pure aether flow.

Wave/particle duality causes conceptual difficulties for many people. Light can behave as a coherent flow of mass, yet it also exhibits distinct wave behaviour.

The magnetic field is solenoidal, yet the equation for the magnetic field indicates the existence of singularities. This paper shows how a double helix arrangement of sinks and sources can resolve this dilemma. Faraday's lines of force, while being solenoidal on one scale, contain within them a double helix array of electrons and positrons. This accounts for the Coulomb force of attraction between two unlike magnetic poles, and the centrifugal force of repulsion between two like magnetic poles.

Electric current consists of a flow of pressurized aether. In an antenna, the associated aether pressure gives rise to static electric charge, and the associated flow of aether gives rise to a magnetic field. The charge is associated with potential energy and the current flow is associated with kinetic energy. It will now be discussed how the phase difference between the two associated surrounding fields is a manifestation of Bernoulli's Principle.

It is suggested that the telegraphy equations as derived by Kirchhoff and Heaviside have overlooked the distinction between linear polarization and magnetization, and hence mixed two different physical effects into one.

When the electromagnetic wave equation is derived in modern textbooks, Maxwell's displacement current is used. This article examines how we can justify Maxwell's displacement current.

Displacement current is the term in Maxwell's modified version of Amp?re's Circuital Law that enables the electromagnetic wave equation to be derived. It was originally conceived by Maxwell in connection with displacement of the electric particles in his sea of molecular vortices. It was conceived to exist in deepest space and not necessarily to be confined to the immediate vicinity of an electric current circuit.

Nowadays, displacement current is introduced as being the term that is needed to make Amp?re's Circuital Law consistent with conservation of charge, and it is deemed not to be a real current. Maxwell on the other hand had already added displacement current to Amp?re's Circuital Law prior to considering any such matters.

It will now be shown that the modern approach to displacement current is heavily flawed and that displacement current makes no difference whatsoever to the issue of the applicability of Amp?re's Circuital Law in charge varying situations.

Gravity is the ?pull force' that is caused by tension in the aether as the aether is being pulled into negative particles. Negative particles are sinks, and the cause of the aether being pulled into sinks is unknown. Gravity is equivalent to a radial negative electric current. The aether (or vitreous electricity) is space itself and it is dynamical, compressible, and stretchable. A universe of sinks alone would collapse unless there were to exist some kind of counterbalancing aether pressure. This aether pressure arises from positive charge sources. The balancing mechanism involves dipolar vortices, Lenz's law, and centrifugal force.

Inertia is generally understood to be that tendency of a body to continue in its state of uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. This is a very limited Cartesian way of looking at the situation. The general situation can be understood within the context of centrifugal force. Inertia is centrifugal force in irrotational fields. Centrifugal force in turn is one mutually perpendicular aspect of a more general convective force of the form **v** x **?** which acts in magnetic fields and in the cyclonic phenomena in the oceans and the atmosphere. In general therefore, inertia is **v** x **?** where **?** is the angular velocity of the aether at the point in question and **v** is the linear velocity of the particle or fluid element.

It is suggested that the magnetic vector potential A and the electric current density J are effectively one and the same thing. They both represent a flow of aether. As such we can show that the full expression for centrifugal force becomes grad (?v?) where ? is aether density. This expression confirms the close link between centrifugal force, kinetic energy, and repulsion pressure.

A dielectric medium impedes electric current due to the fact that the constituent dipoles become linearly polarized and induce a back EMF. A capacitor in an electric circuit utilizes the principle that a dielectric gap in the conducting material causes impedance and acts like a dam, hence enabling electricity to be stored in the circuit. This same dielectric effect can also be used in transmission lines. We will now examine the discharging process in a capacitor with reference to a transmission line pulse, while taking care not to ignore Ampere's Circuital Law. A general principle will be proposed in which an electric circulation commences at the contact point of discharge, and that this circulation expands in two opposite directions, eating its way backwards into the original charged zone while simultaneously extending forwards beyond it, such as to create a region that is twice as long as the original zone, but exhibiting a lesser degree of linear polarization.

When an aeroplane moves horizontally through the air, the air pressure below the wings is greater than the air pressure above the wings. This causes a force to act vertically upwards on the aeroplane, at right angles to its direction of motion. Likewise when an electric current flows through a wire in a magnetic field, a differential pressure is exerted on either side of the wire, causing a force to act at right angles to the wire. In the former case the pressure arises from the centrifugal force that is being exerted by the air molecules, whereas in the latter case the pressure arises from the centrifugal force that is being exerted by the tiny molecular vortices that form the medium for the propagation of light.

When the switch of an electric circuit is turned on, the immediate effect is that the pressurized aether from the power source arcs across the shortest gap from the output terminal to the return terminal. An electric circuit is instantaneously created and this begins the process of polarizing the electron-positron dipoles in that immediate region. As the dipoles become polarized, their opposing internal electric fields will impede further aether flow and so the aether will start to flow wide of that impeded region. This effect progresses wider and wider until the entire region enclosed within the electric wire is polarized, and the current is actually flowing totally within the wire. This article discusses the speed at which the linear polarization effect moves through the space enclosed within the circuit wire.

Archimedes' principle can be applied in the electric sea to explain paramagnetic attraction and diamagnetic repulsion. This is based on a hydrodynamical force derived by James Clerk-Maxwell and based on the concept of a sea of tiny molecular vortices. The force in question derives from a magnetic field intensity gradient in the steady state.

It will now be shown that such a gradient in the steady state can only be compatible with the double helix theory of the magnetic field if the variable quantity is the magnetic permeability which has traditionally been assumed to be constant for a given medium. It therefore follows that the speed of light will vary with the magnetic flux density of a steady state magnetic field.

A further connection between the vorticity of a magnetic field and the speed of light extends this idea generally to the fact that the speedof light will vary with magnetic flux density.

A battery is a source of energy. As such it contains pressurized aether and it will weigh marginally less when it has expired. An electric circuit acts like a pipe. When a battery is connected to a circuit, aether is released from the battery in a controlled fashion and it accelerates linearly through the circuit causing linear acceleration of the charge carriers within the wire. The pressure in the system will cause the aether to leak sideways from the wire and expand into the space beyond, giving rise to a magnetic field. Bernoulli, Maxwell and Tesla all believed that space/aether is rendered into tiny whirlpools. The magnetic field will now be explained in terms of these tiny aether whirlpools.

In order to undermine the idea of a luminiferous aether, it has been argued that a physical medium for the propagation of light would necessarily cause friction which would eventually cause the planetary orbits to collapse. It will now be demonstrated how a dense electron-positron sea actually contributes towards Kepler's laws of planetary motion as opposed to undermining them. The planets stay up in their orbits because of centrifugal force. It will be shown how this centrifugal force actually occurs in the shears lines of the electron-positron sea where friction might otherwise have been expected to occur.

It is proposed that the orbital electrons of an atom should be replaced by a much more complicated interaction of rotating electron pairs and rotating electron-positron dipole pairs. This scenario may better explain both magnetic spin moment and electric current inside atomic and molecular matter. Rotating dipoles can act as a source of stored kinetic energy by virtue of magnetization and linear polarization, and the associated solenoidal bonding can provide a link from the orbital electrons through to the magnetic field beyond.

The link between electric current and magnetic fields will be explored by reviewing Maxwell's cogwheel/idle wheel mechanism in terms of mutually orbiting pairs. It will then be speculated that a magnetic field acts like a rotationally elastic sponge that soaks up the large scale vorticity of Descartes' universe.

If we consider space to be dynamical, aether hydrodynamics yields four fundamental forces. These four forces are divided into two groups of two. We have the rotational (or tangential) forces, and we have the irrotational (or radial) forces. Bernoulli, Maxwell and Tesla all believed that space/aether is rendered into tiny whirlpools. As such we need to make a further distinction between forces that arise from aether hydrodynamics on the large scale, and forces that arise through the fine-grain aether vortices on the microscopic scale.

Gravity and light are two different manifestations of aether flow. A study of the derivation of the famous equation *E = mc ^{2}*, using Maxwell's equation for radiation pressure, explains the link between mass, energy, and aether. This allows us to conclude that electromagnetic waves must be accompanied by an effective flow of mass. The main difference between gravity and light is the fact that gravity is a radially accelerating inflow of aether that imparts its acceleration to particles, whereas light is a tangential curled flow of aether that swirls from vortex to vortex at a constant root mean square (rms) speed. Gravity will therefore affect the path of a light beam by superimposition of aether velocity, and light will cause pressure on physical objects.

When a magnet is rotated, the **v**X**B** component of the Lorentz force will not be invoked on a nearby stationary test particle. The ??**A**/??t component of the Lorentz force will however be invoked provided that the axis of rotation does not coincide with the magnetic axis. Faraday?fs interpretation of the null electromagnetic effect for the special case of a magnet rotating on its magnetic axis was that the magnetic field does not rotate with it. In this respect Faraday was correct, but he missed out on the real significance of the scenario. The real significance is that the **v**X**B** force is not invoked by a rotating magnet irrespective of whether or not the magnetic field is caused to rotate, and hence the velocity term **v** cannot be considered to be measured relative to the magnetic field. The velocity term in **v**X**B** must be measured relative to something else, and since **v** is zero in the case scenario, that something else is clearly not rotating when a magnet rotates on ANY axis.

We examine the cases in which neutral objects experience a force of attraction when they are placed in either a magnetic field both cases is due to the irrotational forces that are acting on the picoscopic scale between the electrons and positrons of the electric sea. The electric sea is a dense sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. Magnetic lines of force follow the rotation axes of these dipoles whereas electrostatic lines of force follow the direction of linear polarization. Magnetic lines of force will constitute helical springs in which the tension is due to the force of attraction between the electrons and positrons, which will be arranged in a double helix fashion around their mutual rotation axes. Electrostatic lines of force will constitute picoscopic stretched springs in which the restoring force arises from a combination of the inverse square law attraction force and centrifugal repulsion pressure. In both cases is due to the irrotational forces that are acting on the picoscopic scale between the electrons and positrons of the electric sea. The electric sea is a dense sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. Magnetic lines of force follow the rotation axes of these dipoles whereas electrostatic lines of force follow the direction of linear polarization. Magnetic lines of force will constitute helical springs in which the tension is due to the force of attraction between the electrons and positrons, which will be arranged in a double helix fashion around their mutual rotation axes. Electrostatic lines of force will constitute picoscopic stretched springs in which the restoring force arises from a combination of the inverse square law attraction force and centrifugal repulsion pressure.

When a neutral body is immersed in such a pressurized region, it will magnetize or polarize in sympathy. A higher concentration of field lines passing through the immersed neutral body will invoke Archimedes' principle and the body will be attracted towards the region of greater magnetic or electric intensity.

In the diamagnetic case, the concentration of field lines passing through the neutral body will be less than in the surrounding space and so the body will be displaced away from the region of greater magnetic intensity.

An abominable by-product of the modern relativity era is the widely circulated notion that a magnetic field is the relativistic component of the electric field. This idea arises out of applying the Lorentz transformation to Heaviside's versions of Maxwell's equations. The result yields both the Biot-Savart law and the Lorentz force along with the relativistic conversion factors. This article aims to demonstrate that the Lorentz transformation of the Maxwell/Heaviside equations, as regards producing the vXB component of the Lorentz force, is merely doing what a Galilean transformation would also do. It is restoring the convective component that was part of Maxwell's original fourth equation, and which Heaviside and Gibbs took away in 1884. This article also demonstrates that the Biot-Savart law is a solution to Maxwell's equations independently of the Lorentz transformation.

Kepler's law of areal velocity is mathematically equivalent to the Lorentz force. This provides the link between Gravity and Magnetism. We learn how gravity is an irrotational aether flow that is permeated with tiny swirling sinks that siphon the aether away from the larger sink. These tiny swirling sinks are stacked on top of each other in their axial planes so as to form the double helixes that constitute Faraday's lines of force. The magnetic permeability represents the areal density in the equatorial plane of these vortices and hence it represents the flux density of a bundle of Faraday's lines of force measured perpendicularly to the lines. Magnetic permeability and electric permittivity both represent a leakage factor in the gravitational field.

It is suggested that much confusion has been caused in modern physics by failure to distinguish different coordinate frame origins within different equations.

In 1856, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment with a Leyden jar which showed that the ratio of the quantity of electricity when measured statically, to the same quantity of electricity when measured electrodynamically, is numerically equal to the directly measured speed of light. In 1861, in his paper entitled *"On Physical Lines of Force"*, James Clerk-Maxwell equated the above ratio with the ratio of the dielectric constant to the magnetic permeability. In the same paper, Maxwell modeled Faraday's magnetic lines of force using a sea of molecular vortices that were composed partly of aether and partly of ordinary matter. He linked the dielectric constant to the transverse elasticity of this vortex sea, and he linked the magnetic permeability to the density. Since Newton's equation for the speed of sound involves the ratio of the transverse elasticity to the density, Maxwell was able to use the 1856 Weber/Kohlrausch ratio to show that light is a wave in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. It will now be suggested that Maxwell's molecular vortices are more accurately represented with rotating electron-positron dipoles that are aligned in a double helix fashion with their mutual rotation axes tracing out the magnetic lines of force.

The aether alone cannot explain electromagnetism. In order to explain electromagnetism, we need to have a sea of tiny aether vortices. In order to have a sea of tiny aether vortices, we need to have sources and sinks in the aether. These sources and sinks are what we call electric particles and it is the *"Electric Sea"* of electric particles that renders the aether into tiny vortices and causes the fundamental hydrodynamical aethereal forces to manifest themselves in the particular guise of electromagnetism. This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the aether and the electric sea. The solenoidal alignment of the electric sea can reverse a mutually attractive gravitational/electrostatic force into a mutually repulsive electrostatic force. The attractive gravitational and electrostatic forces arise primarily out of pure aether hydrodynamics.

It is proposed that space is a dynamic aethereal medium of unknown substance in which electrons constitute sinks, and in which positrons constitute sources. Negative and positive electric charge is merely a measure of the rate of flow of the aether into the sinks and out of the sources. Standard hydrodynamical theory indicates that this arrangement not only accounts for the irrotational radial flow (inverse square law force) of aether into electrons and out of positrons, but that it also yields three additional components of force.

It is widely believed that electricity and magnetism were united by James Clerk-Maxwell in the nineteenth century. In his 1865 paper ?A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field', Maxwell substituted the quantity ?Displacement Current' into Amp?re's circuital law and he obtained the electromagnetic wave equation. Displacement current is generally believed to incorporate Gauss's law and so it would appear that Maxwell had successfully united electrostatics with electromagnetism.

Maxwell's physical explanation for displacement current began in terms of tangential stress on the electrical particles in his sea of molecular vortices and it later developed into dielectric linear polarization current. Maxwell was on the right tracks when he considered the tangential stress on the electrical particles in his vortex sea but he went wrong when he later ignored his molecular vortices to concentrate on the dielectric aspect of the aether.

There exists a tangential quantity that might be accurately described as ?Angular Displacement Current' which exists perpendicular to linear polarization current and which has an identical mathematical form. Maxwell mistakenly interpreted displacement current in electromagnetic radiation to refer to linear polarization current, when in fact it should more accurately refer to angular displacement current.

Angular displacement current is a rotational phenomenon and it will be concluded that electromagnetic radiation is a gyroscopic phenomenon involving the coherent plane polarized propagation of rotations (including precessions) and also the longitudinal propagation of centrifugal pressure.

Most students of physics and chemistry are familiar with the law that ?Like Electric Charges Repel'. It will now be proposed that in the case of negative electric charges, that this mutual repulsion can be explained by a mechanism involving centrifugal force acting laterally between solenoidal field lines in the polarized electric sea, and that this mechanism is overriding an underlying hydrodynamical force of mutual attraction. Aether hydrodynamics tells us that sinks should mutually attract each other. If we equate negatively charged particles with sinks, this will explain both gravity and atomic bonding, providing that we assume all atomic and molecular matter to contain a net negative charge.

There will hence be two opposing forces acting between negatively charged bodies. There will be a hydrodynamical force of mutual attraction and a polarization force of mutual centrifugal repulsion. If the repulsive centrifugal mechanism is dominant at close range, a graph demonstrating the sum of these two forces will have the exact same shape as the graph that illustrates the inter atomic bonding force. There will be a mutually repulsive force at short range and a mutually attractive force at long range that tapers off towards zero.

The rotating electron-positron dipole is the primary physical unit of electromagnetism. It consists of an electron in a mutual central force orbit with a positron. The axis of rotation of this rotating dipole is perpendicular to a line joining the electron to the positron. Aether flows out of the positron, crosses over, and sinks down into the electron. This results in a swirling aether vortex with the electron and the positron acting in the capacity of rolling idle wheels. The richness and quality of this prototype unit will now be discussed in terms of the manifestation of ten very important and distinctive physical characteristics.

Experimental evidence suggests that when a torque is applied to a spinning gyroscope such that the torque axis is perpendicular to the spin axis, then an induced torque will be generated in the gyroscope that is mutually perpendicular to both the spin axis, and to the applied torque axis. This induced gyroscopic torque exhibits the three way mutually perpendicular characteristics of the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Applied mathematics textbooks do not however recognize the existence of induced gyroscopic torque as a distinct fundamental force in its own right. Textbooks assume that when a spinning gyroscope appears to be defying gravity, that this can be fully explained without having to recognize the existence of any additional forces beyond downward.

Newtonian gravity and upward normal reaction of a surface. This article proposes a general theory of gravity based on hydrodynamical principles which introduces three additional components that are not catered for by Newton's law of gravitation. These three components link gravity directly with electromagnetism as well as fully accounting for the induced gyroscopic force in terms of the Coriolis force.

A short paper demonstrating how the motion dependent component in Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction can be obtained by taking the curl of the **v**x**B** component in the Lorentz force. It is then stated that the velocity term in **v**x**B** refers to the absolute velocity through a dense sea of electrons and positrons which, like the atmosphere, is entrained with the Earth's orbital motion by gravity.

This paper applies the same principles that were involved in 'Maxwell's Equations and Galilean Relativity' as published in the same journal in January of the same year. But this time it is the Biot-Savart law which is demonstrated to be the result of taking the curl of Amp?re's Circuital Law. A sea of electrons and positrons is stated to constitute the magnetic and luminiferous medium.