The detection of apparent anomalous forces in the vicinity of high-Tc superconductors under non equilibrium conditions has stimulated an experimental research in which the operating parameters of the experiment have been pushed to values higher than those employed in previous attempts. The results confirm the existence of an unexpected physical interaction. An apparatus has been constructed and tested in which the superconductor is subjected to peak currents in excess of 104 A, surface potentials in excess of 1 MV , trapped magnetic field up to 1 T, and temperature down to 40 K. In order to produce the required currents a high voltage discharge technique has been employed. Discharges originating from a superconducting ceramic electrode are accompanied by the emission of radiation which propagates in a focused beam without noticeable attenuation through different materials and exerts a short repulsive force on small movable objects along the propagation axis. Within the measurement error (5 to 7 %) the impulse is proportional to the mass of the objects and independent on their composition. It therefore resembles a gravitational impulse.
The observed phenomenon appears to be absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature. It cannot be understood in the framework of general relativity. A theory is proposed which combines a quantum gravity approach with anomalous vacuum fluctuations.
Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation in a high frequency magnetic field and rapid rotation) a disk of high-Tc superconducting material has recently been found to produce a weak shielding of the gravitational field. We show that this phenomenon has no explanation in the standard gravity theories, except possibly in the non-perturbative Euclidean quantum theory.
In the weak field approximation to quantum gravity, a "local" positive cosmological term ?2 corresponds to a local negative squared mass term in the Lagrangian and may thus induce instability and local pinning of the gravitational field. Such a term can be produced by the coupling to an external Bose condensate. In the functional integral, the local pinning acts as a constraint on the field configurations. We discuss this model in detail and apply it to a phenomenological analysis of recent experimental results.
A device has been built and tested, in which a ceramic superconducting cathode and a copper anode cause electrical discharges in low pressure gases, at temperatures between 50 and 70 K. The electrodes are connected to a capacitors array charged up to 2000 kV; peak currents are of the order of 104 A. The cathode has the diameter of 10 cm and is fabricated by OCMTG technology. In discharges at voltage above 500 kV two new phenomena were observed, probably related to each other. First, the discharge does not look like a spark, but is a flat, glowing discharge, which originates from the whole surface of the superconducting electrode. Furthermore, a radiation pulse is emitted at the discharge, which propagates orthogonally to the cathode, towards the anode and beyond it, in a collimated beam, apparently without any attenuation. The radiation pulse carries an energy of 10-3 J at least. The features and the nature of this radiation have been investigated by several means, still it was not possible to identify it; we can only exclude that it is electromagnetic radiation or any other radiation with energy-momentum relationship E=cp.