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Barry John Setterfield
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Barry John Setterfield Abstracts
Titles
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Cosmology and the Zerto Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Zero Point Energy and Relativity (2012) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Zero Point Energy, Light and Time (2012) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Zero Point Energy and Subatomic Particle Mass (2011) [Updated 1 year ago]
  • A Plasma Universe with Changing Zero Point Energy (2011) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Zero Point Energy and Giantism in Fossils (2011) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Zero Point Energy and the Redshift (2010) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • Reviewing a Plasma Universe with Zero Point Energy (2008) [Updated 7 years ago]
  • Quantized Redshifts and the Zero Point Energy (2008) [Updated 7 years ago]
  • Reviewing the Zero Point Energy (2007) [Updated 7 years ago]
  • The Redshift and the Zero Point Energy (2003) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:
  • The Atomic Constants, Light, and Time (1987) [Updated 1 year ago]

  • Abstracts Details
  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics consideredthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence, despite the evidence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach that recognized areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meanalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for both plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy says gravity began to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then vast amounts of time are needed to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies found at the frontiers of the universe.

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was also much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

     


  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

     

     Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy

     

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics considersthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach  recognizing areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

     

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

     

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains atomic orbits throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

     

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meansalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy has gravity beginning to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then needing vast amounts of time to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma still comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies at the frontiers of the universe.

     

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

     

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

     

     

     


  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]

     

    Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy.

    Barry John Setterfielda,

    a.        Director, New Hope Observatory, 5961 New Hope Road, Grants Pass, Oregon 97527, USA.

    Abstract

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics considersthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach  recognizing areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meansalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy has gravity beginning to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then needing vast amounts of time to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma still comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies at the frontiers of the universe.

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

    Keywords: Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-electro-magnetism; relativity (special and general).

     


  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics considersthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach  recognizing areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

     

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

     

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

     

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meansalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy has gravity beginning to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then needing vast amounts of time to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma still comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies at the frontiers of the universe.

     

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

     

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

     

     

    Keywords: Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-electro-magnetism; relativity (special and general).


  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about - 273 degrees C. The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics consideredthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence, despite the evidence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach that recognized areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meanalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for both plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy says gravity began to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then vast amounts of time are needed to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies found at the frontiers of the universe.

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was also much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.


  • Cosmology and the Zerto Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

     

    Abstract

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about - 273 degrees C. The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics consideredthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence, despite the evidence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach that recognized areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meanalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for both plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy says gravity began to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then vast amounts of time are needed to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies found at the frontiers of the universe.

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was also much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

    Keywords: Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-electro-magnetism; relativity (special and general).

     


  • Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics consideredthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence, despite the evidence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach that recognized areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

    This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

    SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

    Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meanalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for both plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy says gravity began to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then vast amounts of time are needed to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies found at the frontiers of the universe.

    An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was also much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

    Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

    Keywords: Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-electro-magnetism; relativity (special and general).

     


  • Zero Point Energy and Relativity (2012) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    A wide-ranging review of the origins and successes of Relativity, both Special and General, is undertaken. The Michelson-Morley (M-M) experiment is briefly examined and the properties of the ether' that this suggested is noted. These properties are then re-examined in conjunction with a developing branch of physics, Stochastic Electro-Dynamics (SED). SED physics emphasizes a real, not virtual, vacuum Zero Point Energy (ZPE). Our knowledge of how the vacuum ZPE behaves fulfils all the criteria required by the M-M experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the main predictions of Einstein's Special and General Relativity easily emerge using SED physics and the ZPE. These results are obtained with simple mathematics and intuitive concepts rather than the elaborate reasoning and difficult equations that Einstein required. A deeper understanding of the nature of mass and gravity emerges from the SED equations, along with some insights into gravity waves and their speed. A suggested explanation, involving both the SED approach and plasma physics, is given for the lack of gravitational lensing of stars near the object at the center of our galaxy.


  • Zero Point Energy, Light and Time (2012) [Updated 1 year ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    In 1911, Planck's equations indicated the presence of an energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. Called the Zero Point Energy (ZPE), it was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths. The initial purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck's constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest masses of atomic particles, m. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks, can also be shown to be affected, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not. The ZPE has been shown by Haisch, Puthoff and others to maintain atomic orbits throughout the cosmos. Therefore, an increasing ZPE may mean more energetic orbits, resulting in bluer emitted light through time. This gives an alternate explanation to the increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies. Alteration of electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum would also affect the speed of plasma interactions. Since the universe is usually considered to have begun as plasma, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation using plasma physics can be shown to have been more rapid than models based on gravity. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies at the frontiers of the universe. An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth's fossil record. Finally, many of relativity's predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE and can be formulated with simple mathematics and intuitive concepts.


  • Zero Point Energy and Subatomic Particle Mass (2011) [Updated 1 year ago]

    The branch of physics known as Stochastic Electro-Dynamics (SED) has given many insights into physical processes which occur at the atomic level. These include an understanding of mass and gravity based on the action of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) on charged point particles. However, in these equations a quantity occurs which has generally been ignored. This quantity has been called the "bare mass" or "mechanical mass" of a sub-atomic particle. A better description might be the "intrinsic mass" since it is this entity which is reacting in the atomic environment. When this intrinsic mass is examined, an updated model for mass and gravity emerges which is an extension of earlier SED work and fully compatible with those concepts. In a scenario in which the ZPE changes with time, it is shown that all gravitational interactions remain unchanged. The model seems to account for several anomalies in atomic and macroscopic data as well as the lack of gravitational lensing around Sagittarius A* (pronounced ?Sagittarius A Star?), the object in the center of our galaxy, which is often assumed to be a black hole.


  • A Plasma Universe with Changing Zero Point Energy (2011) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    Plasma physics has recently opened up new vistas in astronomy based on the interaction of electric and magnetic fields. Yet the magnitude of these electric and magnetic interactions is dependent upon the strength of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) which controls the properties of the vacuum. The physical evidence indicates that the ZPE strength has increased with time. This has the effect of reducing voltages and current strengths and the speed of plasma interactions as time increased. Research indicates that a weaker ZPE in earlier times has the ability to account for some otherwise inexplicable astronomical phenomena. In particular, it gives a new understanding of the role played by electro-magnetic processes earlier in the history of our solar system. Several examples are discussed.


  • Zero Point Energy and Giantism in Fossils (2011) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    The Zero Point Energy (ZPE) governs the physical properties of the vacuum, including the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. Terrestrial and astronomical evidence suggest that the ZPE has increased over the lifetime of the universe. This increase has been shown to result in reduced electric current strengths and voltages, as well as slower electric and magnetic interactions. These results are also valid for living systems. When the situation is examined in detail for various biological systems, both floral and faunal, a possible explanation emerges which accounts for the giant plants and animal types found in the fossil record. This exploration suggests that, as the ZPE strength increased, and the properties of the vacuum altered, then many plants and animals became more diminutive as larger sizes could not be physiologically sustained.


  • Zero Point Energy and the Redshift (2010) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    The first section of this paper introduces the concept of the vacuum Zero Point Energy (ZPE) in terms of stochastic electro-dynamics, or SED physics. The effects of the ZPE on atoms and atomic processes according to SED concepts are then summarized. This includes the concept of an increasing ZPE strength due to universal expansion. SED physics has shown that the stability of atomic orbits is dependent upon the strength of the ZPE. Claverie and Diner, Puthoff, Spicka et al. and others have shown that if an electron is emitting more recoil radiation, because of the impacting electro-magnetic waves of the ZPE, than it is absorbing from the ZPE, then it will move towards the nucleus. The reverse is also true. Thus the orbit which results for an electron comes from an equilibrium between the energy radiated and energy absorbed. In the context of a ZPE increasing with time, it is shown that atomic orbits will behave in such a way that light emitted by atomic orbit transitions will become bluer as time moves forward. Thus as we look back into the past by observing increasingly distant astronomical objects the emitted light should be redder with distance. The effect will be the same as the observed redshift of light from distant galaxies. Thus the redshift may be evidence of a ZPE increasing with time rather than the standard explanation of universal expansion. The effect of an increasing ZPE on atomic orbits may either be happening smoothly or in quantum jumps, which is a characteristic of atomic orbit behavior. Analysis then suggests that a quantized redshift can occur with an increasing ZPE. The size of the predicted redshift quantum jumps is in exact accord with the data given by Tifft, Arp as well as Guthrie and Napier


  • Reviewing a Plasma Universe with Zero Point Energy (2008) [Updated 7 years ago]

  • Quantized Redshifts and the Zero Point Energy (2008) [Updated 7 years ago]

  • Reviewing the Zero Point Energy (2007) [Updated 7 years ago]

  • The Redshift and the Zero Point Energy (2003) [Updated 7 years ago]
    by Barry John Setterfield   read the paper:

    The history of the redshift is traced and a variety of problems listed in addition to two major anomalies. One of these anomalies is the quantized redshift, which was first noted by Tifft in 1976 and has been confirmed a number of times, most recently by Bell in 2003. The second anomaly is the breakdown in the redshift/distance relationship, evidenced by the observations of distant Type Ia supernovae, that has revived interest in the existence of the cosmological constant. These problems and anomalies admit a resolution if the energy density of the electromagnetic fields making up the vacuum Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is increasing with time. This approach predicts that light emitted from distant galaxies should have a basic redshift quantization of 2.671 km/s, which is in good agreement with Tifft?s basic quantum of 2.667 km/s. In addition, the standard redshift/distance relationship is shown to derive from known physical processes that produced the ZPE rather than the expansion of space-time or the motion of galaxies. The equations governing these processes readily allow an alternate explanation for the deviation from the standard formula at high redshifts without recourse to the action of a cosmological constant or so-called ?dark energy?.


  • The Atomic Constants, Light, and Time (1987) [Updated 1 year ago]

    That a major revolution in nuclear physics, astronomy and cosmology is underway these days is perhaps not obvious to the general public, or even perhaps to the average research scientist who is not working directly in one of these fields. It was but 300 years ago this year that Sir Isaac Newton published his "Principia," launching the western world boldly forward towards the era of modern physics. An explosive increase in the body of knowledge about our physical universe has resulted. The most rapid changes in this body of knowledge, however, seem to have occurred just in the past few years and appear to be taking place even now at an accelerated rate.

    As startling and profound as Albert Einstein's Special and General Theories of Relativity were when they first appeared, shortly after the turn of this century, advances in particle physics and in astronomy in the past three or four decades have been even more radical in their implications.

    It is now known that certain atomic constants governing the atom and its inner workings are the very same constants that likewise describe phenomena in space-time on the largest scale of observables in the universe. Thus, for some as yet unexplained reasons, the realm of the smallest physical observables is coupled to the grandest scale of events and happenings amongst the stars and galaxies.