- True Nature of Potential Energy of a Hydrogen Atom (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]
- Considering a Formula that Holds True inside a Hydrogen Atom that Is Derived Based on Einstein?fs Energy-Momentum Relationship that Holds True in Free Space (2009) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Alternative Formulation of Quantum Mechanics (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Theoretical Prediction of the Size of a Proton and Revision of the Rydberg Formula (2008) [Updated 1 decade ago]
- Revealing the Essence of Planck?fs Constant (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Thought Experiment to Offer a Definitive Answer to the Michelson-Morley Experiment (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Deriving an Atom?fs Stability from Classical Mechanics and from the Special Theory of Relativity (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Limitation of Applicability of Einstein's Energy-Momentum Relationship (2005) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Thought Experiments whose Results do not Agree with the Prediction of Special Relativity (2001) [Updated 5 years ago]
- New Transformation Equations which Replaces Lorentz- Einstein Transformations to be Applied inside an Atom (2001) [Updated 1 decade ago]

- True Nature of Potential Energy of a Hydrogen Atom (2009) [Updated 1 decade ago]
In considering the potential energy of a hydrogen atom, we offered the hypothesis that this physical quantity corresponds to the decrease in the electron's rest mass energy. It is not possible to establish the ground state energy of a hydrogen atom without quantum mechanics. However, for the atom's stability only, this can be explained even without using quantum mechanics. Our discussion reveals that there exists an off-limit boundary

*r*_{c }within the electron inside a hydrogen atom. - Considering a Formula that Holds True inside a Hydrogen Atom that Is Derived Based on Einstein?fs Energy-Momentum Relationship that Holds True in Free Space (2009) [Updated 9 years ago]
Einstein's energy-momentum relationship, which is representative of the Special Theory of Relativity, holds true in an isolated system in free space, but quantum mechanics as represented by the Dirac equation has been considered the best theory to describe the behavior of electrons possessing potential energy inside atoms. This paper asks the question: "if a formula similar to Einstein's relationship, which holds true in free space, were to also hold true inside a hydrogen atom, what would such a formula look like?" It then derives this relationship. The newly derived formula of this paper could prove useful as a formula to supplement quantum mechanics.

- Alternative Formulation of Quantum Mechanics (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
For a particle at rest in macroscopic space that begins moving when energy is added, the equation for Einstein's energy-momentum relationship represents the relationship between the particle's total energy and momentum, and rest mass energy. When the kinetic energy of the particle increases, so does its total energy. However, things are different when electrons at rest approach the nuclei of hydrogen atoms - protons - thereby creating hydrogen atoms. An electron with rest mass energy will reduce its total energy by emitting photons outside the atom but at the same time will gain kinetic energy. This paper derives the following relationship for an electron inside a hydrogen atom: When establishing the coefficient for the Dirac equation, a relativistic wave equation, Dirac assumed that this equation satisfied the Klein-Gordon equation. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is a quantized equation of Einstein's relationship. Thus, we attempt to discover a coefficient for the Dirac equation which satisfies this quantized relationship as is newly derived in this paper. However, these are not intended to disaffirm the Dirac equation; rather, the equations in this paper with these discovered coefficients are presented as alternative forms of the Dirac equation.

- Theoretical Prediction of the Size of a Proton and Revision of the Rydberg Formula (2008) [Updated 1 decade ago]
For a particle at rest in macroscopic space that begins moving when energy is added, the equation for Einstein's energy-momentum relation represents the relationship between the particle's total energy and momentum, and rest mass energy.

When the kinetic energy of the particle increases, so does its total energy.

However, things are different when electrons at rest approach the nuclei of hydrogen atoms - protons - thereby creating hydrogen atoms.

An electron with rest mass energy will reduce its total energy by emitting photons outside the atom but at the same time will gain kinetic energy.

This paper derives the following equation as an equation for an electron inside an atom.

The physical quantity, thought to be the radius of a proton, can be naturally derived by substituting Bohr's quantum condition into this equation. This value is r = 0.705 fm.

This raises the need to revise the famous Rydberg formula to take into consideration the size of a proton. The following equation was derived by this paper as an equation to predict the wavelength of a photon emitted when an electron inside a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition.

As was true at the beginning of the 20th century, the current-day theoretical value and actual value of the Balmer series spectral wavelength for a hydrogen atom are not entirely consistent. The photon wavelength as predicted by this paper is closer to the actual value than the value predicted by classical quantum theory.

Also, if we focus on how the mass of an electron is involved in determining the size of a proton, and assume that the mass of a proton is involved in determining the size of an electron, we can also predict the electron radius. - Revealing the Essence of Planck?fs Constant (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
According to traditional classical quantum mechanics theory, due to the prior existence of Planck's constant, considered a universal constant, it is thought that the energy of a photon can be determined if its frequency is known, and the wavelength of a quantum can be determined if its momentum is known. In this paper, however, the case is made that logically, since the product of the momentum and wavelength of any photon can be expressed by the constant p??, Planck's constant only comes into existence when p?? is replaced with h. In this paper, we show that Planck's constant is not a universal constant but is instead just a usual fundamental physical constant.

- Thought Experiment to Offer a Definitive Answer to the Michelson-Morley Experiment (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]
Einstein changed the problem of ether from the discussion of whether it exists to that of whether it is necessary as a concept or a hypothesis. It is true that if we give the vacuum the property as a medium that propagates light, it becomes unnecessary to search for ether as substance. Even so, we have to search for an experiment to decide whether the propagation of light emitted from light source is isotropic or anisotropic relative to the light source. An experiment like that was formerly considered nonexistent, but this paper will show it is existent. In the process of Thought experiment of this paper, we will find different results from the prediction by Special Relativity. As the cause of that, we will show the existence of an unknown velocity vector Einstein denied.

- Deriving an Atom?fs Stability from Classical Mechanics and from the Special Theory of Relativity (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]
It is not possible to establish the ground state energy of a hydrogen atom without quantum mechanics. However, for the atom's stability only, this can be explained even without using quantum mechanics. Even according to classical considerations, our discussion reveals that there exists an off-limit boundary r within the electron inside a hydrogen atom.

- Limitation of Applicability of Einstein's Energy-Momentum Relationship (2005) [Updated 5 years ago]
When a particle moves through macroscopic space, for an isolated system, as its velocity increases, the kinetic energy and hence total energy of the particle will increase. However, according to classical quantum theory, when the momentum and kinetic energy of an electron inside a hydrogen atom increases, total energy decreases. From this truth, it is evident that the equation for Einstein's energy-momentum relationship does not hold true inside a hydrogen atom.

- Thought Experiments whose Results do not Agree
with the Prediction of Special Relativity (2001) [Updated 5 years ago]
Einstein changed the problem of ether from the discussion of whether or not it exists to that of whether or not it is necessary as a concept or a hypothesis. It is true that if we give the vacuum the property as a medium that transmits light, it becomes unnecessary to search for ether as substance.

Even so, we have to search for an experiment to decide whether the propagation of light emitted from the light source is isotropic or anisotropic relative to the light source.

An experiment like that was formerly considered nonexistent, but this paper will show it is existent.

In the process of Thought experiments of this paper, we will find different results from the prediction by Special Relativity. As the cause of that, we will show the existence of an unknown velocity vector Einstein denied. - New Transformation Equations which Replaces Lorentz-
Einstein Transformations to be Applied inside an Atom (2001) [Updated 1 decade ago]
We have derived that, between the total energy (

*E*_{ab}) and momentum of an electron inside a hydrogen atom, the following relationship is obtained:*E*_{ab}^{2}+*c*^{2}*p*_{n}^{2}=*E*_{0}^{2}, (Here,*E*_{ab}=*E*_{0}+*E*,_{n }*n*=1,2, ...). From this relationship it is easily derived that the mass of an electron inside a hydrogen atom decreases as the velocity increases. Consequently, we reach the recognition that, in the space inside an atom, we need new transformation equations which replaces Lorentz-Einstein transformations. We can also predict that a particle moving inside an atom or passing through an atom will expand in the moving direction and that the time which passes in the coordinate system of the particle will pass earlier. Furthermore, we will find that, inside an atom, light velocity doesn't function as the upper velocity in the nature. From this, we can predict the existence of a tachyon moving at superluminal velocity.