In recognition of a lifetime commitment to excellence in scientific pursuit. For foundational concepts and principles describing the energy of space, for systematic theoretical investigations of practical devices claiming over unity performance, and for ideas connecting open systems with electromagnetic fields.
The Problem: Thermodynamics has a temporal asymmetry problem, recognized for a century, because the Second Law excludes negative entropy processes and nature does not.
- Starting with some controlled available system energy, the second law provides that, in subsequent interactions, the entropy S of a system can only remain the same or increase. Or, S ?? 0, once the subsequent interactions start.
- The recognized major problem in thermodynamics arises from the present Second Law. As Price states:
- A century or so ago, Ludwig Boltzmann and other physicists attempted to explain the temporal asymmetry of the second law of thermodynamics. ??the hard-won lesson of that endeavor??a lesson still commonly misunderstood??was that the real puzzle of thermodynamics is not why entropy increases with time, but why it was ever so low in the first place.??
- This problem particularly arises in prevailing notions of the origin of the universe, whether ??big bang?? or ??steady whimper??. A great deal of organization and energy came from somewhere or somehow, in a relatively short time cosmologically, to initially generate enormous negative entropy shortly after the beginning.
- If the energy of our observable universe somehow came from ??outside?? it (thus saving energy conservation), then it represented ??loss?? of available energy (positive entropy) to that outside source, and ??negative entropy?? to our gaining universe.
- This suggests a possible clue to the solution: Look for a lower or ??outside?? broken symmetry generating a higher negative entropy (higher symmetry) across an interface between the outside source and our observable universe. We will find precisely this required characteristic in Leyton??s geometry and in his hierarchies of symmetry, as well as in the broken symmetry of particle physics.
- Our observable state universe is separated by a quantum threshold interface from its associated virtual state vacuum. The vacuum has extraordinary virtual energy density and continuously exchanges energy with the observable state. This exchange in fact generates all observable forces of nature, in the modern physics view.
- We are thus focused directly upon the disordered virtual energy of the vacuum, and some required process to coherently integrate virtual vacuum energy into observable energy, crossing the quantum threshold boundary??a negative entropy process.
- Price also states:
- ??the major task of an account of thermodynamic asymmetry is to explain why the universe as we find it is so far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and was even more so in the past.??
- A theoretical process for producing negative entropy will of course solve the problem, if a physical system continuously producing negative entropy by that process can also be exhibited experimentally. Leyton provides the process, and every charge in the universe is already just such a required physical system obeying it.
- We have given the exact mechanism by which the charge coherently integrates virtual photon energy absorbed from the vacuum, into observable photons, which are re-emitted in all directions as real EM energy without any observable EM energy input. The charge continuously consumes positive entropy of the virtual state vacuum, and produces negative entropy at the next higher level, the observable state.
This is a preliminary report on a new solid-state amplifier device which has very low switching voltages and little or no amplification noise. Its principle of operation is based upon the use of electric field potential; that is, variants of an electrostatic field imposed upon a base plate. The device has been tested for transmission of data over long distances without echo phenomena. The authors ask if the transmission is instantaneous and if the device undergoes weight loss due to microscale antigravity.
Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904 papers which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly engineering the ambient potential of the vacuum has been developed and realized experimentally.
Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to classical electro-magnetics, quantum mechanics, and general relativity produces supersets of each discipline. These supersets are joined by the common Whittaker subset, producing a unified field theory that is engineerable and tested.
By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, several working model energy units have been produced which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local virtual photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish coherent self-oscillations between the local excited vacuum and the affected nuclei, utilize the self-oscillating standing wave for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load circuit a powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate replica wave at 60 Hertz frequency and nominal 120 volt sine wave power.
Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts early on to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed batteryless systems with damped positive feedback and open loop systems with battery-powered input have been successfully built. Open loop power gains of from 5 x 104 to 1.5 x 106 have been achieved.
Antigravity experiments have also been successfully conducted where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an output of 1 kilowatt.
The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and experimental results presented. In the demonstration session, a videotape of one operating open-loop unit with a 1.5 x 106 power gain is planned, as is the demonstration of an actual working model closed-loop system with a nominal rating of 500 watts, and without external power input of any kind.
The units are solid state, with no moving parts. Each of them comprises a unique form of self-powered vacuum triode of extraordinary gain, where the cathode power and plate power are freely furnished by the vacuum, and only a small grid signal need be furnished either from an external power source or by clamped positive feedback from the device's output. The output is negative energy, and some of its unique characteristics are pointed out.
Implications of the experimental application of the Sweet vacuum triode, the Bearden approach to the nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, and the unified field theory based on Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable scalar EM potential theory are also briefly addressed.
In this speculative paper, the author argues that the Soviet Union has developed a full-scale electromagnetic scalar wave technology. A scalar wave is defined as a propagating organization in the ZPE created by abruptly bucking electromagnetic fields. The scalar wave interacts with nuclei due to the nonlinear space-time curvature near their vicinity [as well as to their stable lines of vacuum polarization]. The scalar wave is a ZPE coherence that can curve space-time and result in an artificial gravitational field. The higher the frequency of pulsed field opposition, the greater the yield from the ZPE.