An EVO, or Exotic Vacuum Object, begins its life by accreting electrons extracted from gaseous or solid atoms. It then self-transforms into a coherent structure behaving as an entity functioning at greatly reduced expressed charge compared to the number of electrons either put into it or extracted from it at this stage in its life. Charge to mass ratio measurements on the EVO remain the same as that of electrons implying that the mass was also reduced. Part of the process of this transmogrification involves electron emission within a narrow energy range around 2 KeV. If this initial stage of formation is left undisturbed during a brief flight at high velocity, it transforms again into a non-emitting Black state with even further reduction in expressed charge. When this black EVO is reduced in velocity to minimize interaction with matter, the entity becomes virtually undetectable using sensitive particle and charge sensing apparatus. This measurement is in apparent violation of conventional charge and energy conservation laws. While it is clearly evident through various measurements that this disappearance happens in gas up to at least atmospheric pressure, it is speculated that the effect extends to solids thus creating an unexpected form of both transparency as well as presenting a new form of very energetic active shielding from both projectiles and directed beam weapons. A new program for increasing experimental activity is described.
Our cover article in this issue is about charge clusters, which are compact groups of electrons. They defy the common belief that such things cannot occur because of the great repelling forces these electrons should exert on each other. Yet they do appear to exist and are not even that difficult to create, once you know how. Ken Shoulders knows how and has been doing it for about 25 years. Ken and his son Steve experiment with charge clusters (also called exotic vacuum objects or EVOs) in a well-equipped, privately funded lab in California. Ken has a history of working at the edge of science and engineering. He worked at SRI International for ten years as a staff scientist and started a field now called vacuum nanoelectronics, which is based on field emission active devices. He also worked at MIT (during this time he fabricated the world's first microcircuits) and later did some exotic and confidential work for the CIA and others.
The discovery of high-density, electron charge clusters (EV for electrum validum or strong electrons), resulted in several patents for applications ranging from high-speed computer components to methods of generating excess thermal and electrical energy believed to come from tapping the vacuum energy of space. Due to the high-velocity nature of the EVs, new developments were necessary to capture images of EVs during their pico-second travel times. A variety of devices were built and tested to demonstrate some of the applications and some of the problems in the generation, control, and use of EVs. Pending applications include flat panel displays, high-speed logical elements, and a novel type of non-polluting energy production.
New energy transformations have been found using highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avagadro's number. When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects. Evidence will be shown for the EV transiting the solid material, fluidizing it by contributing one extra electron per nucleon for a period considerably longer than the relaxation time, and then imparting momentum to the fluid. Under such conditions, the impact of this fluid on another solid buries a slug of solidified material to depth of over 20 micrometers. This abnormal behavior introduces the notion of energy gain produced through a low energy atomic and molecular phase change coupled with high recombination energy release. Evidence will also be introduced for the underlying energy production process stemming from the equivalence of an electron-annihilation energy release based on the manipulation of fractional electronic charge.
Scanning electron micrographs will be introduced showing EV borehole perfection, dual EV existence, and an electrically driven, sloshing type of material reflection in the borehole that is correctable with impedance-matching, micro nozzles. Micro thrusters using a 20 micrometer diameter and 100 micrometer long slug of non-explosive material will be discussed that are based on a spark-like propulsion process giving sufficient velocity to produce shock cones 70 micrometers apart at atmospheric pressure after being initiated from an energy source of 20 micro Joules. In vacuum, the ions from such a source travel 1 cm in 50 nanoseconds. As an example of the new energetics produced by EV interaction with material, data will be submitted on an intense light source having dimensions of a few micrometers and duration of several picoseconds arising from a form of synchrotron radiation. The basis for controlling the wavelength of this photon source from the visible light region to gamma wavelengths will be discussed. Micrographs will be shown of a low energy nuclear reaction that has produced nuclear transmutations by using a nuclear cluster reaction process.
Experimental evidence in the form of micrographs and X-ray microanalysis is presented suggesting that nuclear charge clusters, (micro sized plasmoids containing 1011 electrons and 106 prontons or deuterons) can accumulate into lattice nuclei with sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier and trigger transmutation events. The hypothesis to explain cold fusion is proposed where electrolytic loading of palladium or nickel causes cracking and fractoemission of the charge clusters.
This article is composed of excerpts from the 80-page US Patent #5,018,180, granted May 21, 1991 to inventor Kenneth R. Shoulders. It was filed May 3, 1989. The assignee is Jupiter Toy Co., Austin, TX. This patent is relevant to: (1) the article by Charles A. Yost in this issue, which describes experiments where electron chains may have been visible as a threadlike stream; (2) a mention in ESJ 1 of an electric propulsion system, described in patent #3,464,207 issued to Ernest C. Okress in 1969; and (3) a natural phenomenon described in ESJ 14 in ?Gorgons from the Volcanoes,? by Egon Bach.