Abstracts Details

Classical electromagnetic field consists of bound and radiation components and only their sum provides for the implementation of energy-momentum conservation of interacting classical charges. Now he focuses on the quantum systems of electrically bound charges which do not radiate in the stationary state and thus their EM field comprises only the bound component. The non-applicability of Maxwell?s equations to quantum mechanics does not permit, in general, ignoring the problem of the energy-momentum conservation for such pure bound E-M field systems and he explores this problem within Schr?dinger-Dirac quantization equation.

We present results of M?ssbauer experiment in a rotating system, whose performance was stimulated by our recent finding (*Phys. Scr.*, 77 (2008) 035302) and which consisted in the fact that a correct processing of K?ndig's experiment data on the subject gives an appreciable deviation of a relative energy shift (Delta E)/E between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilation of time (that is (Delta E)/E = -v^{2}/(2c^{2}) to the accuracy c^{-2}, where v is the tangential velocity of absorber of resonant radiation, and c is the light velocity in vacuum). Namely, the K?ndig result we have corrected becomes (Delta E)/E = -kv^{2}/(2c^{2}), with k=0.596?0.006 (instead of the result k = 0.5003?0.006, originally reported by K?ndig). In our own experiment we carried out measurements for two absorbers with substantially different isomer shift, which allowed us to make a correction of M?ssbauer data regarding vibrations in the rotor system at various rotational frequencies. As a result we got the overall estimation k = 0.68?0.03.

PART I

Previously, based on the law of energy conservation, embodying the *mass & energy equivalence* of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR), thus inducing the *rest mass decrease of a bound object,* as much as the *static binding energy *coming into play, the first author developed a theory valid both for the atomic and celestial worlds, and yielding totally similar quantum mechanical deployments for both worlds. The application of the idea, however, to a rotating disc, which is Einstein's gedanken experiment, on which The Grand Master based his General Theory of Relativity (GTR), brings up two distinct effects: 1) Already, as observed by an observer located at the center of the disc and rotating with the same angular velocity as that of the disc, the clock placed at the edge, must, still owing to the law of relativistic law of energy conservation, embodying the *mass & energy equivalence *of the STR, experience, a *rest mass decrease* in the *centrifugal force field,* which in return, leads to a time dilation. 2) The clock according to an outside observer, further dilates by the usual Lorentz coefficient. The first effect is though as important as the second one. Einstein took into account the second one, but not the first one *(as he specifies his thoughts about the problem, in the footnote of page 60 of his book, The Meaning of Relativity).* The overall result is that, the time dilation an object placed at the edge of a rotating disc, would display, should be about *twice *as that predicted by Einstein. The law of conservation of angular momentum, constitutes a cross check of our finding. The recent measurements back us up firmly. At the same time and devilishly, the *inexact analogy* Einstein did set between the effect of rotational acceleration, and the effect of gravitation, leads to results which are the same as ours, up to a third order Taylor Expansion, thus well beyond any precision can intercept, with regards to *actual gravitational measurements.* The remedy of the mistake in uestion, leaves the GTR unfortunately, needless.

PART II

The present approach further leads to the derivation of de Broglie relationship, coming up to be coupled with the superluminal velocity U_{t}=(c^{2}/v) SQRT (1-v^{2}/c^{2}), where v is the velocity of the bound object, say an electron moving around a nucleus, or a planet moving around a star, with respect to the source of attraction or repulsion of concern. This suggests that an interaction, such as that delineated by an optical interception, can of course take place with an ?energy exchange? (in that case, "electromagnetic energy exchange"), but it can also occur without any energy exchange. We propose to call the latter "wave-like interaction". An interaction with energy exchange can not evidently occur with a speed exceeding the speed of light, whereas an interaction without any energy exchange occurs with the superluminal speed U_{t}, were the object moving with a speed v, with respect to the attraction or repulsion center. Note that the present approach is, in full conformity with the STR. Our disclosure, seems to be capable to explain the spooky experimental results newly reported. Thus, it is not that, Non-Locality and STR are incompatible. It is that the STR, allows a type of interaction faster than the speed of light, were there no exchange of energy.

Analyzing a conception of measurement in space-time, we derive some general properties of ether theories, which adopt the Minkowskian metrics for an absolute space.

In this paper, we re-analyze the ingenious experiment by K?ndig (measurement of the transverse Doppler shift by means of the M?ssbauer effect) and show that a correct processing of experimental data gives a relative energy shift *DeltaE/E* of the absorption line different from the value of classically assumed relativistic time dilation for a rotating resonant absorber. Namely, instead of the relative energy shift *DeltaE/E* = −(1.0065?0.011)*v ^{2}/2c^{2}* reported by K?ndig (

*v*being the linear velocity of absorber and

*c*being the light velocity in vacuum), we derive from his results

*DeltaE/E*= −(1.192?0.011)

*v*. We are inclined to think that the revealed deviation of

^{2}/2c^{2}*DeltaE/E*from relativistic prediction cannot be explained by any instrumental error and thus represents a physical effect. In particular, we assume that the energy shift of the absorption resonant line is induced not only by the standard time dilation effect, but also by some additional effect missed at the moment, and related perhaps to the fact that resonant nuclei in the rotating absorber represent a macroscopic quantum system and cannot be considered as freely moving particles.

We show that, just like the gravitational field, the electric field too slows down the internal mechanism of a clock, which interacts with the field. This approach explains substantially, the retardation of the decay of the muon, bound to a nucleus.

We base the present approach, on an alternative theory of gravitation, consisting essentially on the law of energy conservation broadened to embody the mass & energy equivalence of the Special Theory of Relativity, and remedying, known problems and incompatibilities, associated with the actually reigning conception. The mere rotation problem of say, a *sphere,* can well be undertaken, along the same idea. Accordingly, we consider the *problem of gravity created by a rotating celestial body.* Finally we apply our results to the case of a geosynchronous satellite, which is, schematically speaking, nothing but a clock placed on a considerably high tower. The approach ironically furnishes the >Newton's law of motion, which however we derive, based on just static forces, *and not an acceleration, governing a motion. (There is anyway no motion for a geosynchronous satellite, when observed from Earth.) *We predict accordingly that, the blue shift of light from a geosynchronous satellite *on an orbit of radius *r_{Gs} should be *softened *as much as omega^{2}/(2c^{2})(r_{Gs}^{2}-R^{2}) compared to what is expected classically; here omega is *Earth's self rotation angular momentum,* R *Earth's radius,* and c the *speed of light in empty space. *We hope, the validity of this unforeseen prediction, can soon be checked out.

In this article, we show that the analogy between the *effect of acceleration* and the *effect of gravitation*, making up the Classical (C) Principle of Equivalence (PE), which is the basis of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR), constitutes a *non-conform analogy*, i.e. it does not embody a *one to one correspondence between the two worlds* coming into play. This will constitute a starting point to show the inadequacy of the *Classical Principle of Equivalence* (CPE). On the basis of a *quantum mechanical theore*m previously established, we prove that, the CPE is further inaccurate. For one thing, it happens to constitute a *violation* of the *law of energy conservation*. More specifically, owing to the *law of energy conservation*, broadened to embody the *mass & energy equivalence* of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR), next to the *usual mass dilation* due to the movement in question, the force field too, is to alter the *rest mass* subject to an accelerational motion (*which happens something totally overlooked by the GTR*). This assertion is well compatible with the recent disclosure that the time dilation displayed by a rotating object is much greater than the one classically predicted on the basis of just the Lorentz factor, associated with the motion. Thence, we establish a Proper PE. The approach we present, leaves unnecessary the CPE, thus the GTR, and yields a *whole new theory about gravitation*, along with all end results of this theory, up to a third order Taylor expansion, yet with no singularity (*thus, no black holes*), and with an incomparable ease, with a *different metric* too. Our approach in fact is (*not restricted to gravitation, thus is*) extendable to all fields.

In this paper we pay attention to the inconsistency in the derivation of the symmetric electro-magnetic energy-momentum tensor for a system of charged particles from its canonical form, when the homogeneous Maxwell's equations are applied to the symmetrizing gauge transforma-tion, while the non-homogeneous Maxwell's equations are used to obtain the motional equation. Applying the appropriate non-homogeneous Maxwell's equation to both operations, we have ob-tained a modified expression for the symmetric electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor. Analyzing its structure, we suggested a method of ?gauge renormalization?, which allows transform-ing the divergent terms of classical electrodynamics (infinite self-force, self-energy and self-momentum) to converging integrals. The obtained electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor has been applied to a phenomenological description of the classical electron. We found that such a description can be done in the Lorentz invariant form at the scale less than the classical radius of the electron. In particular, we explicitly determined the expressions for the mass parameters M, M_{EM} and M_{P}, where M, M_{EM} are the mechanical and electromagnetic masses of classical elec-tron, correspondingly, and MP stands for the mass parameter, associated with the ?Poincar? stresses?. Further, we analyzed some other principal inferences of classical electrodynamics after the ?gauge renormalization?. We have found that the motional equation obtained for a non-radiating charged particle does not contain its self-force. The motional equation for a radiating particle does not yield any ?runaway solutions?. It has been shown that the energy flux in a free electromagnetic field is guided by the Poynting vector, whereas the energy flux in a bound elec-tromagnetic (EM) field is described by the generalized Umov's vector, defined in the paper. The problem of linear EM momentum is also examined.

This paper examines the problem of "hidden" momentum for quasi-static macroscopic systems. We have analysed a number of particular physical problems and shown that introducing of "hidden" momentum is strongly required to fulfil the energymomentum conservation law.

The paper analyzes the relativistic law of transformation of force and some accompanied physical difficulties. We focus our attention on the complex systems, consisting of a number of sub-systems i with the velocities ???? i u in a laboratory frame. We establish an analogy between the total force in such system and e.m.f. in a closed deforming circuit with respect to the force transformation law. It has been concluded that for these systems the relativistic law of transformation of force contradicts the causality principle.

The non-invariance of the Faraday induction law, revealed in [1] through calculation of an e.m.f. along a mathematical line, was further analyzed for integration over a conducting closed circuit within special relativity theory [2]. Now this problem is considered within the framework of covariant ether theories [3]. A physical meaning of the non-invariance of the Faraday induction law is revealed, and a possible experimental scheme for measuring an absolute velocity of Earth has been proposed.

This paper considers a number of physical problems, dealing with transformation of the non-radiating electric and magnetic fields between different inertial frames, and analyses an origin of these fields through their sources and the laws of electrostatics and magnetostatics. It has been found that, in all problems of classical electrodynamics dealing either with single space-time transformations or with successive spacetime transformations with collinear velocities, a relationship between the fields and their sources in terms of the electrostatic and magnetostatic laws can be established. In problems dealing with successive field transformations with non-collinear relative velocities, relativity theory fails to indicate an origin of the fields obtained formally via such transformations. This can be done in covariant ether theories, and some physical inferences from the obtained results are discussed.

Some new theoretical and experimental approaches for unambiguous verification of special relativity theory (SRT) are discussed. A class of phenomena for which SRT and covariant ether theories (CET?s) give different predictions is identified. The physical meaning of these phenomena is discussed. It is concluded that, under modern development of experimental technique, a critical choice between SRT and CET?s can be made by means of M?ssbauer spectroscopy

The present paper analyses the twin paradox as presented by Van Flandern [1] and confirms the results obtained by standard relativistic calculations. A variety of the twin paradox with symmetrical causal chains of events is considered, where the motional trajectories of two twins can be realized with some probability. It seems that such a probabilistic presentation of the twin paradox destroys a conception about equivalence of all inertial observers in SRT. The twin problem has been considered within Lorentz ether theory (LET). For better understanding of the observations of both twins, a mathematical apparatus of LET has been developed. It has been proved that LET postulates represent a direct consequence of the Galilean transformations in physical space-time under limited speed of light.

This paper returns to the problem [1] about two light pulses propagating across an accelerated infinite chain of re-emitters (point absorber-re-emitters) of light, where both non-inertial and inertial observers look for possible intersection of these light pulses. It is shown that the author?s previous conclusion about violation of the causality principle in this problem contained a mistake. In this connection the present paper analyses a simplified version of the problem, where two reflectors of light substitute for an infinite chain of reflectors. The compatibility of causality and relativity principles is derived.

The non-invariance of the Faraday induction law, revealed in [1] through calculation of an e.m.f. along a mathematical line, is further analyzed for integration over a conducting closed circuit. The principal difference of a conductor from a mathematical line is the appearance of internal electromagnetic fields induced by rearranged conduction electrons. In our analysis we distinguish two general cases: 1- the internal electromagnetic fields from the conduction electrons contribute an induced e.m.f.; 2 - the internal fields do not give such a contribution. Case 2 makes a conducting circuit similar to a mathematical line, where the Faraday law is always correct, while the Einstein relativity principle is violated. However, in such a case the violation of special relativity occurs not for a hypothetical model problem, but in physical reality.

The present paper defines ?covariant ether theories? as all space-time theories that are alternative to special relativity theory (SRT), but nevertheless satisfy the general relativity principle. A general analysis of the properties of admissible space-time transformations shows that the number of such ?covariant ether theories? is infinite, and that all these theories are indistinguishable from SRT with all experiments in space-time physics reported to date.

It is shown that the comment by Vladimir Onoochin to the mentioned paper contains some irrelevant assertions. At the same time, the comment recalls a recognized statement that the theory of relativity is internally consistent theory, and the revealed in [1] paradox comes into a certain contradiction with this statement. A goal of the present paper is to answer on the entitled question.

A particular problem about special kind of two light pulses propagation has been considered in cases of inertial motion, constant homogeneous gravitation field and progressive noninertial motion with constant acceleration. A contradiction between the causality principle and relativity theory has been revealed.

The concepts of the relativity in Galilean space has been extended to some simple kinds of non-inertial motion. This exercise has releaved a formal contradiction between the general principle of relativity and the casual principle. This contradiction has been used is analysis of the basic conceptions of the Special Relativity.

Proceeding from the most general formulation of the main kinematic problem with use of the general physical principles, it has been shown that the complete spacetime can be described by means of two four-dimensional orthogonal subspaces with Galilean and Lorentz laws of transformations, respectively. Physically it corresponds to two non-equivalent methods for building up an inertial reference frame. It has been shown that such solution explains naturally the Lorentz hypotheses of "world ether" and has been revealed their physical sense (combination of the Galilean space with finite value of light speed). It has been established that for first space the successive transformations of the inertial reference frames are rotation-free. In this connection the Thomas procession has been considered from a new standpoint and the general requirements for new experimental tests of the Special Relativity have been suggested.