- Cosmology Based on a Hierarchy of Finite Isolated Systems in an Infinite Cosmos (2000) [Updated 9 years ago]
- The Aether, Inertia and Cosmology (1996) [Updated 7 years ago]
- The Cosmological Views of Nernst: an Appraisal (1995) [Updated 3 years ago]
- de Sitter Cosmology Reinterpreted (1995) [Updated 7 years ago]
- Universes, Black Holes and Elementary Particles (1994) [Updated 2 years ago]
- Newtonian Cosmology with Renormalized Zero-Point Radiation (1994) [Updated 7 years ago]
- Large Anamalous Redshifts and Zero-Point Radiation (1994) [Updated 9 years ago]

- Cosmology Based on a Hierarchy of Finite Isolated Systems in an Infinite Cosmos (2000) [Updated 9 years ago]
- The Aether, Inertia and Cosmology (1996) [Updated 7 years ago]
Assigning to the Aether fluid a velocity-dependent refractive index can ensure that a spherical light wave remains spherical for all observers. Motion relative to zero-point radiation cannot be measured, suggesting identification with the Aether. The divergent energy density U of zero-point radiation when added to self-gravitational potential energy density cU Kc2 hfb0g, where fb0g = -2pGroR2 3 yields total energy density Kroc2 , which is finite if 2pGroR2 = 3Kc2 . Because mfb0g= -Kmc2 , addition of mass m does not increase ro . The uniformly dense sphere then becomes an exact cosmological model. Spontaneous matter creation is possible at any world point without affecting ro . Duality of such a theory with de Sitter cosmology is claimed.

- The Cosmological Views of Nernst: an Appraisal (1995) [Updated 3 years ago]
Walther Nernst is best known for his contributions to thermodynamics, and in particular for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1920. His work at the time when quantum theory was developing rapidly had cosmological implications which he explored in 1937 in a paper which has been overlooked. The cosmological work of Nernst has been brought to my attention by A.K.T. Assis and C.R. Keys because of the similarity of Nernst's ideas with my own ideas, some of which were published in earlier issues of this journal (Browne 1994a,b). Helped by translations of Nernst's papers by Peter Huber and Gabriella Moesle (see other essay in this issue), I review now how the separate lines of thought come together. The character and properties of the aether provide a direct connection between thermodynamics and cosmology. How Nernst's work integrated with the ideas prevalent in the years 1906-1916 is made particularly clear by Whittaker (1951) in his two-volume study

*A History of the Theories of the aether and Electricity*. In the preface to the second volume, Whittaker writes:As everyone knows, the aether played a great part in the physics of the nineteenth century; but, in the first decades of the twentieth century, chiefly as a result of failure to observe the earth's motion relative to the aether, and the acceptance of the principle that such attempts must always fail, the word 'aether' fell out of favour, and it became customary to refer to the interplanetary space as 'vacuous'; the vacuum being conceived as mere emptiness, having no properties except that of propagating electromagnetic waves. But with the development of quantum electrodynamics, the vacuum has come to be regarded as the seat of ?zero-point? fluctuations of electric charge and current, and of a 'polarization' corresponding to a dielectric constant different from unity. It seems absurd to retain the name 'vacuum' for an entity so rich in physical properties, and the historical word 'aether' may fittingly be retained.

- de Sitter Cosmology Reinterpreted (1995) [Updated 7 years ago]
Spherical light waves independent of the motion of the frame of reference of the observer are obtained by assigning to the Aether fluid three effects: (I) dilation of times, (ii) contraction of lengths in the direction of Aether motion, and (iii) a velocity-dependent refractive index. Applying to constant units time dilation and length contraction appropriate for the free-fall velocity field of a Newtonian potential field, one obtains coordinate-dependent units (unit fields) in terms of which measurements obey the laws of geometry for flat Minkowski space-time. The Newtonian model of a universe, namely a uniformly dense sphere with finite radius, provides unit fields (derived from free-fall velocity) whose transformation to constant units changes Minkowski geometry to de Sitter geometry.

In order to derive de Sitter space-time with uniform mass density from the Einstein field equations it is necessary to replace matter source term kTab by the cosmological term Lgab . Then a single physical constant L specifies a Universe, which is reasonable if a Universe is defined with respect to mass M as absorber ?bMg of Aether disturbances from M when M is accelerated. The exact distribution of matter surrounding M does not affect the gravitational potential Fo at M in the rest frame of M because the boundary surface of the Universe (a horizon) adjusts so as to maintain constant Fo. The same is true for another mass M? . A universe, so defined, is one of an infinity of Universes, each of which is an inertially isolated system in an infinite Cosmos. The redshift is shown to be capable of different interpretations, including Dopplergravitational and "tired light." Mass density of the Universe is that of vacuum fluctuations whose positive divergent electromagnetic energy density is renormalized by divergent negative gravitational self potential energy to a finite negative value. Thus a mass falls outwards in the Newtonian Universe with negative mass density. Energy conservation demands that matter be created when mass in highly degenerate stars attains the negative energy vacuum state. It is shown how entropy decreases with the onset of degeneracy in stars.

- Universes, Black Holes and Elementary Particles (1994) [Updated 2 years ago]
The divergence in the energy density of zero-point radiation can be removed by addition of self-gravitational potential energy density, provided that the resulting finite energy density closes the universe at radius R. Gravitational renormalization removes also the divergence of the self-energy of the electron. The black hole condition is satisfied at r = R, for both internal and external motion. Extended Newtonian cosmology in flat space-time is valid only with coordinate-dependent units. The equivalent Einstein cosmology (with constant units) is that of de Sitter space-time. Being a black hole, the universe is perfectly isolated from the rest of the cosmos, and is one of an infinity of universes. A universe is to be regarded as an isolated system surrounding any test mass m whose boundary surface adjusts so as to produce at m in the rest frame of m a constant gravitational potential irrespective of the distribution of surrounding matter.

- Newtonian Cosmology with Renormalized Zero-Point Radiation (1994) [Updated 7 years ago]
It is shown that the infinite energy density of zero-point radiation can be renormalized to a finite value, Kroc2 , where Kro is the inertial mass density corresponding to gravitational mass density ro , by inclusion of gravitational self-potential energy, provided that 4pGroR2 = 3Kc2, which is the condition that Kroc2 closes the universe at radius R. When material mass m* is renormalized in the same way the result is mbrg = -cm* 2hc1- r 2 R2 h. Negative mass m(r) interacting gravitationally with positive ro is accelerated outwards subject to Kg 2mbrg = constant, where g = - b - 1 2 1 c h 2 , so that matter of the universe expands with velocity field b = r R. The Hubble redshift can therefore be given a Doppler interpretation. A velocity field b = r R and a Doppler interpretation of Hubble's effect are obtained in de Sitter cosmology, but only as one of several equally valid interpretations depending on reference system. For Robertson coordinates the Hubble redshift emerges in exponential form and receives a "tired light" interpretation in a stationary universe. The same must be expected for extended Newtonian cosmology.

Following previous work, Planck radiation oscillators are quantized gravitationally as eigenstates of a fundamental oscillator of minute constant energy wo , where wo = c R. Quanta wo (gravitons) can be scattered from the w-radiation field to the w? -radiation field, redshifting one and blueshifting the other so that it is possible for an arbitrary radiation spectrum to attain the equilibrium blackbody spectrum without interacting with matter. The redshift dw over the path d in a medium with radiant energy density is dw w = -AUd , where A is a constant with theoretical value A = 6.4 ?10-21 erg-1 cm2. When U = Kroc2 the redshift law reduces to Hubble's law dw w = -d R, which integrates to the exponential form obtained in de Sitter cosmology with Robertson coordinates.

When U is the radiant energy density in a quasar there arise local (anomalous) redshifts exceeding the Hubble redshift. For a quasar at distance r the Hubble redshift varies as r, but the value of U varies as r2 . It is found that the local redshift dominates the Hubble redshift for r > r *, where r * = 0.014R is estimated from observed quasar fluxes and dimensions. The anomalous distribution of high-redshift quasars is explained. A possibility for testing the redshift law in the laboratory is explored briefly.

- Large Anamalous Redshifts and Zero-Point Radiation (1994) [Updated 9 years ago]
In de Sitter space-time using Robertson coordinates the Hubble redshift can be interpreted as gradual decrease of photon frequency. How this decrease of frequency might occur was suggested previously (Browne, 1962). The radiation field for each Planck oscillator is quantized gravitationally as a field of gravitons of minute constant energy. Scattering of a gravitron from one field to another toward the equilibrium blackbody spectrum results in a redshift, [], where distance dl is propagated in a medium with radiant energy density U and A is a constant. A cross section, previously suggested (Browne, 1976), provides a theoretical value for A. The law becomes the Hubble redshift dw/w = dl/R if U = Kp

_{o}c^{2}, where p_{o}is the gravitational mass density required to close the universe at radius R and K is the ratio of inertial to gravitational mass (a dimensional constant with value unity). It is argues that zero-point radiation (vacuum fluctuations) have renormalized energy density Kp_{o}c^{2}.In quasars U is large enough to yield anomalous redshifts comparable with the Hubble redshift of the sources, but the sources must be at large distances in order to have the large values of U.