The Lorenz and Einstein theories are here revisited from the perspective of our present pragmatic knowledge of the universe. The field of gravitation emerges in a chain of Lorenz transformations, while linking the micro cosmos of the particles to the macro cosmos of the Universe. In this context, the precession of the Mercury orbit is reconfirmed as a consequence of the field itself.
The acceleration in the gravitational field is attributed to a flow velocity which covers up a subluminal deficit left by the world-lines in the Lorenz transformations in the direction towards singularities in the gravitational centers.
The nuclear force emerges as a local variety of gravitation in the micro-scales of the particles within the macro-scale of the Universe. In this context a revised Planck length returns a proper mass in the dimension of the nucleon quarks. From this follows also that force balance is achieved in the local fields of the electron. These examples indicate that the universe is functioning in a holographic way.
In the overall picture it seems to be the Arrow of Time which governs the development of the Universe, resulting in a general inflation in time, space and mass, as well as gravitation, while the mass-increase is offset by negative potential energy in the gravitational fields, thus allowing for a still ongoing avalanche creation of the Universe without any requirement for external energy.
In a paper presented June 1997, at a conference in Athens, the author developed a holistic view of the Universe and its components, all joined together in a common geometry in four-dimensional space-time, applied to the Universe as a whole, as well as to its constituent components--the particles.
The ideas documented here, which form a continuation of the Athens paper, were introduced in a first draft from February 1999 at a lecture to the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur and later in September the same year at the Cesena conference. They initially concern a new approach to quantum gravity, the missing link to unification, but also extend to a discussion of energy flows in the vacuum as the mechanism of the gravitational process. The ideas introduced here are also related to string theory, although in a transformation scenario where differentials of any size are allowed, and therefore an extra dimension, representing the "thickness of the line," can be allowed from the Plank length up to the Hubble scale.
We introduce the concept of an interface between matter and the dimension of time. This interface will have the form of a surface. Of course, this is not the first time surface has served as a significant measure for concepts in physics. Other examples are the probability density of the Schrodinger equation or the cross-sections of nuclear interactions.
We first make the comparison with the way an architect draws a house and its implementation by a builder. The architect may not bother with the thickness of his lines when making the drawing. But the builder must also consider the fine resolution of the lines, which will be enlarged to centimeters or decimeters in practice. In the same way, Special Relativity (SR) will need to be complemented by the introduction of a fine-structure given by the thickness of particle time-sheets, which replace the notion of geometrical time in the form of infinitely thin light-rays used heretofore. Only by making this extension to SR will it be possible to extend General Relativity (GR) from a static picture of the curved space-time to a dynamic theory which includes cause and effect.
Rotating rings (or toroidal plasma filaments) are associated with singularities in space-time in two limits: when the rotation velocity approaches c and zero, respectively. The resulting geometry incorporates a constant relationship between surface and enegy for the kinetic energy of the rotation, as well as the rest-masses of the rings. This relation provides the missing link that unifies the electric and gravitational forces. The geometry generates configurations similar to vortex rings in hydrodynamics, and leads to a model of elementary particle masses. An interpretation of the thermodynamics of de Broglie is given in which the cosmic background radiation and other cases of radiation in space are identified as due to energy exchanges between particles and the vacuum.
This paper deals with the conceptual origin of particle mass and its relation to energy and space. It has been impossible, along the way, to avoid the question of the unification of the forces, and some results have been achieved in this area as well.
One of the major unsolved problems in physics today concerns the origin of particle rest mass. Einstein attempted to explain the rest masses of elementary particles as singularities in space-time. Present efforts aimed at unifying the forces in the Universe are intimately related to this idea, and the approach taken by the majority of researchers is to invoke rescaling during the expansion of the Universe since the Big Bang.