Abstracts Details

By using mundane static concepts of ?mass? and ?gravity field? energies, it is shown that: (1) Schwarzschild's criterion for black hole formation translates into a critical ratio of mass energy to gravity field energy ~rn/gF < 4; (2) Five objections to black holes are: (a) The scape velocity equation does not apply to light, (b) Curved space-time is a geometrical-physical delusion, (c) Curved space-time is incompatible with both the Lorentz transforms and pure mathematics, (d) The Doppler effect proves light is not affected by the space-time continuum, and (e) Kirchhoffs law for black body radiation is violated; (3) The Planck particle and our Universe are incompatible concepts.

Pure mathematics treats the basic notions of, and the truths relating to, number, space, motion and time that are known intuitively (i.e., by common sense). Over numerous centuries mathematicians have formulated logical systems of thought (viz., arithmetic, algebra, geometry and kinematics) based upon concepts and axioms that also serve as the very foundation of science. The non-Euclidean geometries are not only incompatible with each other, but also incompatible with the long-standing concepts and axioms of mathematics. Hence, they are invalid, and any physical theories based upon such pseudo-geometries result in science fiction.