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Toivo Jaakkola
local time: 2017-09-23 02:22 (+02:00 )
Toivo Jaakkola Abstracts
Titles
  • Action-at-a-Distance and Local Action in Gravitation (2007) [Updated 8 months ago]
  • Action-at-a-Distance and Local Action in Gravitation (1996) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • In Memoriam Toivo Jaakkola (11 March 1941 - 24 May 1995) (1996) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Jean-Claude Pecker, Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • Radiative and Dynamical Implications of Electrogravity (1994) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • Electrogravitational Coupling: Empirical and Theoretical Arguments (1991) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • On Reviving Tired Light (1990) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • Spatial Fluctuation of the Hubble "Constant" (1990) [Updated 4 years ago]
  • The Cosmological Principle: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations (1989) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:
  • Mach?s Principle and Properties of Local Structure (1987) [Updated 6 years ago]

  • Abstracts Details
  • Action-at-a-Distance and Local Action in Gravitation (2007) [Updated 8 months ago]

    A new theoretical framework is presented by giving a summary of equilibrium cosmology (EC) recently developed by the author. In EC, gravitation is an equilibrium process providing energy balance in systems of baryonic matter, while electromagnetic radiation is the contrary effect. Gravitation on a body is a pressure effect of gravitational quanta (gravitons) conducted from the background field by the gravitation field of the body. The formation of the field is outlined. Gravitons and photons interact via electrogravitational coupling (EGC), which causes the redshift effect and an analogous weakening of gravity, as well as the cosmic background radiation which is a re-emission equilibrium effect. From pressure-induced gravitation and EGC, a dynamical theory (EGD) can be constructed which unifies the gravitation effects in systems on different scales; until now, numerous ad hoc hypotheses had been nec essary to explain the effects.

    When EGD is applied to the two-body problem, Newton?s law is obtained directly. In it the force is a sum of two equal terms which are due to the two fields of graviton flow into the bodies, which are mutually screened by the second body. While gravitation is basically not an attractive but rather a repulsive pressure force, the two-body attraction results from the screening effect. The dilemma of a distant action versus a local action character of gravitation receives a simple but unexpected solution: both are true. While the momentum due to the pressure of gravitons flowing towards the second body has a distinctly local character, the momentum obtained due to the screening of the body's own field by the second body is an action at the distance of that body. Both are expressions of a single interaction between the mass systems and the background field.


  • Action-at-a-Distance and Local Action in Gravitation (1996) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    The problem of the character of gravitation is approached by discussing three main possible modes of action from the historical, theoretical and empirical standpoints. The Newtonian mode of action-at-a-distance (AAAD) in which Newton himself did not believe followed through three centuries, though the aim is not historical accuracy. This approach includes several Webertype theories of velocity-dependent action; these are found to be compatible with or transformable to the mode of the ?material field local action (MFLA). The historical roots of the mode of relativistic local action (RLA) are sketched, and it is criticized on both conceptual and empirical grounds. For the MFLA mode, a new theoretical framework is presented by giving a summary of equilibrium cosmology (EC) recently developed by the author. In EC, gravitation is an equilibrium process providing energy balance in systems of baryonic matter, while electromagnetic radiation is the contrary effect. Gravitation on a body is a pressure effect of gravitational quanta (gravitons) conducted from the background field by the gravitation field of the body. The formation of the field is outlined. Gravitons and photons interact via electrogravitational coupling (EGC), which causes the redshift effect and an analogous weakening of gravity, as well as the cosmic background radiation which is a re-emission equilibrium effect. From pressure-induced gravitation and EGC, a dynamical theory (EGD) can be constructed which unifies the gravitation effects in systems on different scales; until now, numerous ad hoc hypotheses had been nec essary to explain the effects.

    When EGD is applied to the two-body problem, Newton?s law is obtained directly. In it the force is a sum of two equal terms which are due to the two fields of graviton flow into the bodies, which are mutually screened by the second body. While gravitation is basically not an attractive but rather a repulsive pressure force, the two-body attraction results from the screening effect. The dilemma of a distant action versus a local action character of gravitation receives a simple but unexpected solution: both are true. While the momentum due to the pressure of gravitons flowing towards the second body has a distinctly local character, the momentum obtained due to the screening of the body's own field by the second body is an action at the distance of that body. Both are expressions of a single interaction between the mass systems and the background field.


  • In Memoriam Toivo Jaakkola (11 March 1941 - 24 May 1995) (1996) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Jean-Claude Pecker, Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    Dying so young, at 54 years of age, is in itself a sad and painful thing. But when one is, as Toivo Jaakkola was, in a period of full productivity, of continuous creative imagination, it is for all his friends and colleagues an almost intolerable loss.


  • Radiative and Dynamical Implications of Electrogravity (1994) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    The term electrogravity (EG) is suggested for the force acting in processes such as the edshift, QSOs, the CBR and processes that resolve the background paradoxes, where gravitation and electromagnetic radiation are both strongly present and affect each other. Radiation due to EG is denoted by EGR, and parallels between EGR in QSOs (and to a lesser extent in galaxies) and EGR in the form of the CBR are pointed out. Electrogravitational dynamics (EGD) gives a theoretical unification of gravitational phenomena on various scales. Until now, several ad hoc forces or other additional hypotheses have been needed to explain these effects.


  • Electrogravitational Coupling: Empirical and Theoretical Arguments (1991) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    In a cosmological approach to a unified physical theory, it is first shown that certain general global-scale arguments suggest a coupling of the electromagnetic and gravitational nteractions. Three historically important and still actual issues further motivate the study. Several more recent and still unexplained observations are introduced as evidence that neither electromagnetic nor gravitational phenomena can be interpreted consistently by the current standard theories, and as indicators of the important role of the EGC in the physics of all scales of nature.

    The universal redshift effect, containing the cosmological redshift, intrinsic redshifts in QSOs and intermediate strengths of z depending on the density of a system, is interpreted as a quantized loss of energy from the photon to a vacuum composed of gravitational quanta. The model covers consistently all the observed features of redshift, including its quantized fine-structure, observed both in distant-dependent and distance independent redshifts.


  • On Reviving Tired Light (1990) [Updated 8 months ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    Halton Arp has recently (1989) presented empirical criticisms of the validity of tired-light mechanisms as an explanation of anomalous redshifts. This is extremely welcome and represents the beginning of a true discussion among those who are not content with standard big bang cosmology. The unorthodox theories are legion: there almost as many theories as there are unorthodox thinkers in this domain. This situation is not conducive to advances in our understanding of a difficult problem. Therefore discussion, and even dispute, are necessary, unavoidable and useful. And who has greater right to initiate the discussion than Chip Arp, the pioneer of the field?


  • Spatial Fluctuation of the Hubble "Constant" (1990) [Updated 4 years ago]

    Six samples of objects have been analyzed in order to check whether the redshift asymmetry discovered by Rubin et al. is a general effect. The results for all samples are consistent with the existence of the asymmetry. Its average magnitude is = 1300 + 210 km/s. The asymmetry vanishes at large distances. Various interpretations of the effect have been discussed. Arguments are given in favour of a non-Doppler redshift occurring in the intergalactic space within the Local Supergalaxy and other concentrations of galaxies.

    This article was written in 1975, and has remained unpublished until now. It is published here in the hope that it will stimulate fresh thinking on the controversial issue of non-velocity "cosmological" redshifts.


  • The Cosmological Principle: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations (1989) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Toivo Jaakkola   read the paper:

    The idea of the (perfect) cosmological principle (CP), viz. that the Universe presents the same aspect from any place at any time, is traced to the ancient Greek philosophers, who also suggested how such a cosmic order might work. The antithesis of this view, i.e. the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic world-picture, was to become the hallmark of the Dark Ages. The Copernican revolution constitutes the first step by science in a modern direction, and the advance of science is thus seen as a succession of world pictures, all entred on local systems, in a hierarchical progression. We demonstrate that the prevailing picture of the Universe as an evolving system is still trapped in a local mode of thinking: the Copernican revolution is unfinished.


  • Mach?s Principle and Properties of Local Structure (1987) [Updated 6 years ago]