We have gathered here at the occasion of the presentation of the 2011 Sagnac Award to Halton ?Chip? Arp.
This reward is particularly close to Chip's heart because, while the other prizes recognize results or new ideas or new observations, the Sagnac Award recognizes and honors Freedom and Courage. Indeed,
for Chip, a strong sense of freedom was required. Freedom to undertake new types of observations, critically examine current dogma, challenge common thinking, not giving in to the scientific social pressure.
This is, I imagine, one aspect of the freedom that the new Bundespraesident , Mr. Joachim Gauck, would like to see spreading widely throughout the society.
I would like to end by quoting the 6th paragraph of the preamble of the Swiss Constitution : Free is only the one who uses his freedom.
The quantization period of the intrinsic redshift of quasars is characterized by the factor 1.23. The origin of this constant is not yet explained, but it could be of fundamental significance if found in other physical phenomena. Because the radiation emitted from quasars is a consequence of the interaction between elementary particles, the masses of leptons, quarks, mesons and baryons are here first investigated. It is found that their masses are related to each other by integer numbers as mk = moBk (where mo is the mass of the first particle in a group and k is the integer number). The quantities B depend on the particular group which the particle belongs to and are found to be simple functions of the fine structure constant, a, and the quasar redshift factor, F ~ 1.23.
The next larger systems are the atomic nuclei. The correlation of atomic weight A with atomic number Z of elements results in an empirical formula with F ? 1.2375. The masses of large gravitational systems are also examined, particularly the solar-system in which there are five subsystems: the first one is the Sun with its planets, and the next four are the planets with their systems of satellites. The correlation of the central mass Mc with the sum of the masses ms of all bodies orbiting the central one, is of the form ms ? const ? (Mc)F, where F is again about 1.22.
The Karlsson formula for the preferred redshifts observed in quasars is derived directly from the Bohr model of the radiating atom using the assumption that electron mass evolves in steps such that me,k = me/Fk. Here F is observationally measured to be close to 1.23.
The relationships found here between the fine structure constant and F and the radiation and gravitational properties of physical systems on all scales would appear to be numerically significant. If this is so, it is hoped this will eventually lead to an understanding of the basic cause of quantization on all scales.
In recent years satellite observations have recorded a number of point x-ray sources in the sky. Such sources are overwhelmingly identified with medium to high redshift quasars. These quasars can now be shown to originate in low redshift, active galaxies which eject them along their minor (rotation) axis. It can be empirically demonstrated that this is how galaxies are born and evolve. The observations invalidate the assumptions of Friedmann and Einstein in General Relativity and require a more general, Machian solution of the field equations in flat space-time.
In recent years satellite observations have recorded a number of point X-ray sources in the sky. Such sources are overwhelmingly identified with medium to high redshift quasars. These quasars can now be shown to originate in low redshift, active galacies which eject them along their minor (rotation) axis. It can be empirically demonstrated that this is how galaxies are born and evolve. The observations invalidate the assumptions of Friedman and Einstein in General Relativity and require a more general, Machian solution of the field equations in flat space-time.
Simply the arrangement on the sky of extragalactic objects has long shown that the youngest, smallest quasars and compact galaxies have been created recently in the vicinity of older progenitor galaxies. Now high energy observations in X-rays and y-rays confirm these connections and require the creation of matter as an ongoing process marked by an initially high intrinsic redshift.
The nearest superclusters of galaxies show creation along lines in space originating from the central, ejecting galaxy. String theory may be pertinent. The existence of preferred values of redshift (periodicity) rule out, again, an expanding universe. Thet also imply quantum mechanical effects at the m = 0 creation points of particulate matter. No theory has been advanced, however, which numerically predicts the quantization values.
Non-velocity redshifts of the brightest OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds are correlated with their evolutionary ages. It is shown that these excess redshifts are quantitatively predicted if the stars are made of matter created only ? 3 ? 106 yrs. later than the average matter in the Clouds. Intrinsic spectral shifts of galaxies and quasars are produced by relatively small differences in the epochs of their creation, though their average Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams are left essentially unchanged.
The Hubble constant is then quantitatively derived as a predominantly distance-intrinsic redshift effect which is a function of look back time, not as a distance-expansion velocity relation. Present estimates of the age of the oldest stars predict?on the basis of the age-intrinsic redshift law?a Hubble parameter of H0 = 45 ? 7 kms?1 compared to a recently measured value of H0 = 52 ? 2 kms?1 (Sandage and Tamman 1990).
In the conflict between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr over the fundamental nature of reality, quantum mechanics was the experimental data being interpreted. The Copenhagen school maintained, crudely speaking, that reality at the microscopic level was to some extent subjective and acausal. Einstein, on the other hand, believed that no event was without cause and proposed the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox attacking the conclusions of quantum mechanics as being self-contradictory. The paradox, of course, was that quantum mechanics was observed to be experimentally true.
The EPR proposal for an operational definition of reality was eminently sensible: If an event could be predicted with certainty it was real. The difficulty was that EPR did not discuss the aspect of locality. I would suggest extending their definition to read: To the extent that an event can be predicted it is locally causal; to the extent that an observed event is unpredictable it is real but only causal on a non-local scale.