Paul Dirac, in 1931, attempted to determine why the fundamental charge has exactly the same value (e) for both the electron and proton. His attempt was mathematical, and he (mistakenly) theorized there had to be a fixed value "magnetic monopole". I find that the electron, positron, muon and proton, all are constructed with geometry, that fixes the value of fundamental charge, the same for all. Basic particle structures are outlined here and the fundamental charge is shown to be a constant, because charge density times the particle current loop area, is equal to the fundamental charge (e) exactly, independent of cube particle size.
A gravity theory must explain why mass is attracted to mass. Three hundred years after Newton's formulation and one hundred years after Einstein's special relativity calculation, we have been no closer to understanding the cause for the force of gravity. A case is now made for the well known atomic mass defect as the mass sink that forces mass to be attracted to mass. Theory by Dr. T. Van Flandern and experiments by Dr. E. Podkletnov are discussed that serve to support the nature and superluminal velocity of the gravity force.
Vector particle physics shows that all precision in nature scales from the
precise size of the electron and positron. The fundamental physical constants
are known to within a few parts per billion uncertainty. These vector positron and
electron identically return all known electron constants and several previously
unknown electron fundamental constants as proof of concepts. Electron mass,
spin angular momentum, charge and magnetic moment are derived. The cause
of particle spin angular momentum is shown to be the conservation of the
structure photon's linear momentum in the unique structure geometry. New
previously unknown electron characteristics of loop current, loop voltage, loop
impedance Z0/2 and electron flux quantum are derived. The fine structure
constant (alpha) is derived from the vector geometry. The fundamental charge (e) is
shown to be size independent from the constant ratio between particle volume
and current loop areas. Size independence sets the value of the smallest charge
possible as (e=1.602176487x10-19 A-s) solving a long standing mystery of why
the electron, muon and proton all have the same charge of (e).
Vector particle physics provides the correct structures and characteristics for the electron type neutrinos, the muon type neutrinos, and the proton and neutron. These previously unknown particle structures give particle characteristics that clearly show the neutrino is not emitted from nuclear proton electron capture (EC) sequences from the sun. Detailed kinematics, showing the proton electron capture (N-1H) neutrino energy is absorbed in the daughter nucleus is proof that no neutrinos are present for neutrino detection in the experiments supposed to reveal neutrino characteristics. Examples of some well known neutrino experiments are critically discussed to show all are based of incorrect notions of the nuclear physics (EC) decay sequences.
It is a great mystery that the electron, muon, and proton all have exactly the same fundamental charge (e) of (1.602176487 x 10-19 Ampere-seconds) and spin angular momentum of exactly h / 4? = 6.272858141258 x 10-35 m2-kg-s-1 (Joule-seconds), when, at the same time, each has its own unique mass (in kilograms) and magnetic moment (in Ampere meter squared).
The Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) step resistance plateaus, in a two degree (2DEG) electron gas, discovered in 1980 and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE) discovered in 1982, required low currents, low temperatures and high magnetic fields. In 1988, it was discovered (even at room temperature and no magnetic field) that quantum step conduction would also occur with one degree (1DEG) electron gas in separating point contacts or in necking extrusions. In the intervening years the open questions were: What is the cause of the energy dissipation in the (h/e2) quantum step resistance plateau values, and why are the quantum resistances insensitive to geometry? The answers have now been found using (a previously unknown) electron binding energy, reisitance dissipation energy. The Planck constant (h) is derived from the electron binding energy physics, and thus obtains the(h/e2) von Klitzing constant RK = 25812.8074 Ohm ab initio. The von Klitzing pair and Cooper pair physics occurs only in the first pair as they bind onto the electron waveguide EWG channel, making the quantum resistance insensitive to channel length. Only the von Klitzing resistance constant (RK = 25812.8074 Ohm) is available to make up the quantum step plateuas, thus, the various resistances of the step plateaus are the result of parallel and series combinations of (RK). These new results are also applicable to the familiar Josephson junction Cooper pair effects.