Abstracts Details

The Dynamic Universe is a holistic model of physical reality starting from whole space as a spherically closed zero-energy system of motion and gravitation. Instead of extrapolating the cosmological appearance of space from locally defined field equations, locally observed phenomena are derived from the conservation of the zeroenergy balance of motion and gravitation in whole space. The energy structure of space is described in terms of nested energy frames starting from hypothetical homogeneous space as the universal reference and proceeding down to local frames in space. Time is decoupled from space - the fourth dimension has a geometrical meaning as the radius of the sphere closing the three-dimensional space. Relativity in the Dynamic Universe is the measure of the locally available share of total energy - clocks in fast motion or in a strong gravitational field do not lose time because of slower flow of time but because more energy is bound into interactions in space. For local observations, the DU predictions are essentially identical to the corresponding predictions derived from the theory of relativity. At the extremes, at cosmological distances and in the vicinity of local singularities in space however, differences become remarkable - e.g. galactic space in the DU appears in Euclidean geometry, and the magnitudes of high redshift supernovae are explained without assumptions of dark energy or accelerating expansion. Black holes in DU space have stable orbits down to the critical radius. Instead of a sudden Big Bang, the energy buildup in Dynamic Universe is seen as a continuous process from infinity in the past to infinity in the future. The Dynamic Universe means a major step in the unification in physics and cosmology. Electromagnetic energy is linked to the rest energy of matter and the effects of motion and gravitation in local frames and in the relevant parent frames are inherently included in the expressions of energy states and characteristic emission frequencies of atomic objects.

It has been known for several decades that the rest energy of all matter in space is essentially equal to the total gravitational energy in space. The Dynamic Universe model introduced in this paper studies the equality as a dynamic zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation in spherically closed space. In such a solution time is absolute, the fourth dimension has metric nature, and relativity appears as the measure of the locally available share of total energy in space. The study of the zero-energy balance in spherically closed space can be based on few postulates and the derivation of predictions for local physical phenomena and for cosmological observations can be carried out with fairly simple mathematics essentially free of additional parameters.

In all interactions in space the total energy is conserved. A clock in motion in space does not lose time because of slower flow of time but because motion in space diverts a share of the total energy of the device thus leaving less energy for the oscillation running the clock. In the DU framework a local state of rest can be related to the state of rest in hypothetical homogeneous space, which serves as a universal frame of reference for all local phenomena in space. The Dynamic Universe model discards the space-time marriage, the relativity principle, the Lorentz transformation, the equivalence principle, and dark energy. The DU model also discards the postulation of the constancy of the velocity of light but explains why the velocity of light is observed as being unaffected for observers in motion and for observers at different gravitational potentials.

In celestial mechanics, the Dynamic Universe leads to stable orbits down to the critical radius of local singularities (black holes), shows the perihelion shift of eccentric orbits, the Shapiro delay, the bending of light, etc. In the Dynamic Universe, gravitationally bound systems like planetary systems, galaxies and galaxy groups expand in direct proportion to the expansion of space. As a consequence, the Euclidean appearance of the angular sizes of galaxies is predicted. The DU's prediction for the magnitude versus redshift of standard candles is in an excellent agreement with recent supernova observations without assumptions of dark energy or free parameters.

The Dynamic Universe means a major change in the paradigm but offers a platform - with relativity built in and a firm anchor to human conception - to doctrines like Maxwell's equations and electromagnetism in general, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, and quantum mechanics.

Newtonian physics is local by its nature. No local frame is in a special position in space. There are no overall limits to space or to physical quantities. Newtonian space is Euclidean until infinity, and velocities in space grow linearly as long as there is constant force acting on an object. Finiteness of physical quantities was observed for about 100 years ago ? first as finiteness of velocities.

The theory of relativity introduces a mathematical structure for the description of the finiteness of velocities by modifying the coordinate quantities, time and distance for making the velocity of light appear as the maximum velocity in space and an invariant for the observer. Like in Newtonian physics, no local frame, or inertial observer, is in a special position in space. Friedman-Lema?tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metrics derived from the general theory of relativity predicts finiteness of space if a critical mass density in space is reached or exceeded.

In the Dynamic Universe approach space is described as the three-dimensional surface of a four-dimensional sphere. Finiteness of physical quantities in DU space comes from the finiteness of total energy in space ? finiteness of velocities is a consequence of the zero-energy balance, which does not allow velocities higher than the velocity of space in the fourth dimension. The velocity of space in the fourth dimension is determined by the zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation of whole space and it serves as the reference for all velocities in space. Relativity in DU space means relativity of local to the whole ? relativity is a measure of locally available share of the primary rest energy, the rest energy of the object in hypothetical homogeneous space. Atomic clocks in fast motion or in high gravitational field do not lose time because of slower flow of time but because part of their energy is bound into interactions in space. There is no space-time linkage in the Dynamic Universe; time is universal and the fourth dimension is metric by its nature. Local state of rest in DU space is the zero-momentum state in a local energy frame which is linked to hypothetical homogeneous space via a chain of nested energy frames.

Predictions for local phenomena in DU space are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by special and general theories of relativity. At extremes, at cosmological distances and in the vicinity of local singularities differences in the predictions become meaningful. Reasons for the differences can be traced back to the differences in the basic assumptions and in the structures of the two approaches.

A detailed analysis of a dynamic solution of the zero-energy condition of gravitation and motion in Einstein's original proposal of spherically closed space shows a precise match to the luminosity?redshift relation of Ia supernovae without dark energy, accelerating expansion, or additional parameters. In such a solution, Einstein's static 4-sphere is allowed to contract or expand instead of being forced to be stationary by means of a cosmological constant, the original formulation of dark energy. In spherically closed space the zero-energy condition determines the mass density and the development of the expansion velocity of space, allowing the derivation of predictions to cosmological observables like the angular size distance, the magnitude, the surface brightness of distant objects, and the orbital velocities in the vicinity of black holes in closed mathematical forms ? all with excellent fit with observations without a cosmological constant, dark energy, or accelerating expansion.

The Dynamic Universe model introduced in previous PIRT conferences is based on a zero energy balance of motion and gravitation in spherically closed space. Such an approach explains the rest energy of matter as the energy of motion mass in space possesses due to the motion of space, and allows the study of space as a closed energy system. Due to the spherical symmetry, a universal reference at rest in space is a state with zero velocity in space directions, directions perpendicular to the motion of space along the 4-radius of the spherical structure. Following the zero energy principle all local energy systems in space become related to the universal rest frame. Conservation of the total energy relates local velocities in space to the velocity of space and local gravitation in space to the gravitation of whole space ? thus replacing observer oriented reference frames to energy system oriented reference frames like intrinsically applied in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and celestial mechanics or any mechanical system. A zero energy balance means that the energy of motion is obtained against release of potential energy, the principle first time introduced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in late 17th century using the terms vis viva, ?living force ? obtained against release of vis mortua ?dead force?. Such an approach fixes a local frame of reference to the local energy system instead of fixing it to an inertial observer as allowed by Newton's laws of motion and the Galilean relativity, the forerunners of physical thinking for the upcoming centuries. In the Dynamic Universe framework the conservation of energy in space is manifested through a chain of cascaded energy frames which extend the zero energy balance of whole space to local reference frames. As a fundamental difference to Einsteinian relativity, which relies on relativity principle and locally modified coordinate quantities, relativity in the DU defines the locally available share of the total energy ? conserving the absolute nature of the coordinate quantities and making relativity an integral part of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, mechanics, and thermodynamics. In the Dynamic Universe framework, the expressions of the rest energy of matter, the energy of a quantum, and the energy of electromagnetic radiation obtain a unified form, which demonstrates the abstract nature of mass as the substance for the expression of energy and the primary role of the conservation laws. Based on very few assumptions, the Dynamic Universe model gives a coherent description of the structure of space and matter and produces precise predictions to physical phenomena throughout the scale from microstructures to cosmological distances.

A radio engineer can hardly think about smaller amount of electromagnetic radiation than given by a single oscillation cycle of a unit charge in a dipole. When solved from Maxwell's equations for a dipole of one wavelength, the energy of the emitted radiation cycle obtains the form E_{?} = 2/3 hf, where the Planck constant h can be expressed in terms of the unit charge, e, the vacuum permeability, ?_{0}, the velocity of light, c, and a numerical factor as h = 1.1049⋅2?^{3}e^{2}?_{0}c = 6.62607⋅10^{34} kg⋅m^{2}/s. A point emitter like an atom can be regarded as a dipole in the fourth dimension. The length of such dipole is measured in the direction of the line element cdt, which in one oscillation cycle means the length of one wavelength. For a dipole in the fourth dimension, three space directions are in the normal plane which eliminates the factor 2/3 from the energy expression thus leading to Planck's equation E_{?} = hf for the radiation emitted by a single electron transition in an atom. The expression of the Planck constant obtained from Maxwell's equations leads to a purely numerical expression of the fine structure constant ? = 1/(1.1049⋅4?^{3}) ~1/137 and shows that the Planck constant is directly proportional to the velocity of light. When applied to Balmer's formula, the linkage of the Planck constant to the velocity of light shows, that the frequency of an atomic oscillator is directly proportional to the velocity of light. This implies that the velocity of light is observed as constant in local measurements. Such an interpretation makes it possible to convert relativistic spacetime with variable time coordinates into space with variable clock frequencies in universal time, and thus include relativistic phenomena in the framework of quantum mechanics.

When interpreted with the standard theory of cosmology, recent observations of the apparent magnitude vs. redshift of Type Ia supernovae suggest an accelerating expansion of space. The acceleration is justified by assuming the presence of an unknown dark energy working against gravitation at cosmological distances. The assumption of dark energy is equivalent to Einstein's cosmological constant, which he originally proposed to prevent a collapse of spherically closed space which he assumed to be static. If Einstein's spherically closed space, the surface of a 4-sphere, is allowed to expand in a zero energy balance between the energies of motion and gravitation, no cosmological constant or dark energy is needed. In a thorough analysis of such expansion, the apparent magnitude, m, versus redshift, z, obtains the form m = M_{0} + 5 log z + 2.5 log (z+1), which completely agrees with the Type Ia supernovae observations. Due to the assumed spherical geometry and the zero energy balance, the obtained magnitude prediction is absolute in its nature; it has no free parameters like ?m, ??, or the Hubble constant H0 that are needed in the corresponding equation derived from the standard cosmology model. In space, described as a dynamic 4-sphere, the fourth dimension is geometrical in its nature, allowing a universal time coordinate. The velocity of light becomes directly linked to the velocity of space in the direction of the 4-radius and the rest energy of mass gets the meaning of the energy of motion mass possesses mass due to the expansion of space. As further consequences of the zero-energy balance, buildup of mass centers in space result in local bending of space allowing solutions of the perihelion advance of planetary orbits, the bending of light and the Shapiro delay in closed mathematical form. The characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atomic objects become linked to local motion and gravitation, which means that the concept of proper time is replaced by a direct effect of motion and gravitation on the frequencies of atomic oscillators. In dynamic spherical space the well known equality between the total gravitational energy and the rest energy of mass in space reflects the zero energy balance driving the expansion of spherically closed space.

A holistic view of the cosmological appearance and development of space is obtained by studying space as a spherically closed surface of a 4-sphere in a zero energy balance between motion and gravitation. Such an approach reestablishes Einstein's original view of the cosmological structure of the universe but instead of forcing space to be static with a cosmology constant, it lets it contract or expand while constantly maintaining a balance between the energies of motion and gravitation within the structure. In spherically closed dynamic space the fourth dimension, the direction of the 4-radius of the structure, is purely metric in its nature; time can be treated as a universal scalar, and the line element *cdt* in the fourth dimension gets the meaning of the distance that space moves at velocity *c* in time differential *dt*. The rest energy of matter appears as the energy of motion due to the motion of space in the fourth dimension, in the direction of the 4-radius of the structure. The dynamic universe approach converts Einsteinian spacetime in variable time and distance coordinates into dynamic space in absolute coordinates. All velocities in space are related to the 4-velocity of space, and the local state of rest appears as a property of the local energy system rather than as the state of an observer. Based on the zero-energy balance of whole space and the conservation of energy in interactions in space, the dynamic space approach allows the derivation of relativistic phenomena and cosmological predictions in closed mathematical form without relying on the Lorentz transformation or the relativity and equivalence principles. Mach's principle gets a quantitative expression, and the picture of cosmology is cleared: no dark energy or free parameters are needed to explain the magnitude/redshift relations of distant objects. Local systems expand in direct proportion to the expansion of whole space which results in a Euclidean appearance of distant space and explains the observed development of the surface brightness of galaxies. The rate of internal atomic processes is tied to the velocity of light which is determined by the expansion velocity and local geometry of space. All processes, like radioactive decay or buildup of large scale structures in space, have been faster in the young expanding universe. The ongoing decelerating expansion of space continues to infinity by gradually releasing the rest energy of matter. In the dynamic universe, the cycle of observable physical existence begins at cessation at infinity in the past and ends at cessation at infinity in the future.

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time. A key demand of a physical theory is its capability to create an understandable picture of the reality we observe. Instead of just introducing mathematical expressions for observations, a physical theory should explain the logic behind the phenomena observed. The old Ptolemy astronomy worked well for calendar and eclipses but failed in serving as a basis for a physical view of celestial motions. A key in Copernicus' findings was the realization of the observer's state in the system - instead of defining the observer's state as the origin at rest Copernicus identified the Sun as the origin of the planetary system with Earth orbiting and rotating like any other planet. Such a structure gave basis for a physical approach of motions in the system thus opening a new era for the understanding of celestial mechanics and the laws of nature. The Dynamic Universe approach takes a further step in reorienting the observer. The observable three-dimensional space as whole is considered as a closed spherical structure with its dynamics determined by a zero energy balance between gravitation and motion in the structure. Such approach links local phenomena to the state and motion of whole space and gives physical explanations to several postulates like the velocity of light, the rest energy of matter and the Mach's principle. It also explains the dependence of the velocity of light on the gravitational environment and the dependence of the ticking frequencies of atomic clocks on the state of local motion and gravitation - not by distorting time and distance coordinates but in absolute time and distance.

Recent observations on the redshift and magnitude of distant supernovae have raised fundamental questions of the cosmological structure and the development of space. Interpretation of the observations with the standard cosmology model suggests accelerating expansion of space which requires an assumption of unknown dark energy working against gravitation at cosmological distances. This paper presents an analysis which shows that the observed magnitude redshift relationship is in an excellent agreement with the prediction derived by assuming a zero energy balance of motion and gravitation in an expanding 4-sphere. Such an approach can be regarded as Einstein-deSitter expansion in the fourth dimension, suggesting a decelerating expansion velocity until zero in infinity.

*Colloquium "Human Approaches to the Universe" in University of Helsinki, Finland September 26-27, 2003.*

In his lectures on gravitation Richard Feynman stated: "If now we compare this number [total gravitational energy GM^{2}/R] to the total rest energy of the universe, Mc^{2}, lo and behold, we get the amazing result that GM^{2}/R = Mc^{2}, so that the total energy of the universe is zero. ? It is exciting to think that it costs nothing to create a new particle, since we can create it at the center of the universe where it will have a negative gravitational energy equal to Mc^{2}. ? Why this should be so is one of the great mysteries?and therefore one of the important questions of physics. After all, what would be the use of studying physics if the mysteries were not the most important things to investigate?. [Feynman, R., Morinigo,W., Wagner,W., Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63) , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1995), p. 10] and further ?...One intriguing suggestion is that the universe has a structure analogous to that of a spherical surface. If we move in any direction on such a surface, we never meet a boundary or end, yet the surface is bounded and finite. It might be that our three-dimensional space is such a thing, a tridimensional surface of a four sphere. The arrangement and distribution of galaxies in the world that we see would then be something analogous to a distribution of spots on a spherical ball.? [Feynman, R., Morinigo,W., Wagner,W., Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63) , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (1995), p. 164] A closer study of Feynman's ?intriguing suggestion of spherically closed space? leads to dynamic space described as a spherically closed structure expanding in the direction of the radius in the fourth dimension. Such solution shows the rest energy of matter as the energy of motion mass has due to the expansion of space in the fourth dimension. The dynamics of space is determined by the balance of motion and gravitation in the structure which explains the ?the great mystery? of the zero-energy condition between gravitational energy and the rest energy of matter in space. Following the zero energy principle, any motion or gravitational state in space becomes related to the motion and gravitational state of whole space. Clocks in motion and clocks near mass centers run slower due to the linkage between the local energetic environment and contribution of whole space. Contrary to the theory of relativity, in dynamic space time and distance can be handled as absolute coordinate quantities.

The 1976 Scout D rocket test with hydrogen masers revealed a gravitational blueshift attributable to general relativity and a secondary Doppler effect said to be attributable to special relativity, because it correlated with the relative velocity between rocket and reference Earth station, and not the velocities of spacecraft and Earth station separately. The analysis in this paper examines the prediction of the general relativity theory in more detail, and shows that the reported correlation of the secondary Doppler effect with the relative velocity between spacecraft and Earth station was due to the Doppler cancellation system employed ? and not, as reported, a manifestation of special relativity. The re-interpretation of the Scout D experiment has important implications for the interpretation of observations of electromagnetic radiation made between moving objects, and ultimately calls into question some of the basic assumptions of the special relativity theory.

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time.

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time.

A key demand of a physical theory is its capability to create an understandable picture of the reality we observe. Instead of just introducing mathematical expressions for observations, a physical theory should explain the logic behind the phenomena observed. The old Ptolemy astronomy worked well for calendar and eclipses but failed in serving as a basis for a physical view of celestial motions. A key in Copernicus' findings was the realization of the observer's state in the system - instead of defining the observer's state as the origin at rest Copernicus identified the Sun as the origin of the planetary system with Earth orbiting and rotating like any other planet. Such a structure gave basis for a physical approach of motions in the system thus opening a new era for the understanding of celestial mechanics and the laws of nature.

The Dynamic Universe approach takes a further step in reorienting the observer. The observable three-dimensional space as whole is considered as a closed spherical structure with its dynamics determined by a zero energy balance between gravitation and motion in the structure. Such approach links local phenomena to the state and motion of whole space and gives physical explanations to several postulates like the velocity of light, the rest energy of matter and the Mach's principle. It also explains the dependence of the velocity of light on the gravitational environment and the dependence of the ticking frequencies of atomic clocks on the state of local motion and gravitation - not by distorting time and distance coordinates but in absolute time and distance.

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time.

A key demand of a physical theory is its capability to create an understandable picture of the reality we observe. Instead of just introducing mathematical expressions for observations, a physical theory should explain the logic behind the phenomena observed. The old Ptolemy astronomy worked well for calendar and eclipses but failed in serving as a basis for a physical view of celestial motions. A key in Copernicus' findings was the realization of the observer's state in the system - instead of defining the observer's state as the origin at rest Copernicus identified the Sun as the origin of the planetary system with Earth orbiting and rotating like any other planet. Such a structure gave basis for a physical approach of motions in the system thus opening a new era for the understanding of celestial mechanics and the laws of nature.

The Dynamic Universe approach takes a further step in reorienting the observer. The observable three-dimensional space as whole is considered as a closed spherical structure with its dynamics determined by a zero energy balance between gravitation and motion in the structure. Such approach links local phenomena to the state and motion of whole space and gives physical explanations to several postulates like the velocity of light, the rest energy of matter and the Mach's principle. It also explains the dependence of the velocity of light on the gravitational environment and the dependence of the ticking frequencies of atomic clocks on the state of local motion and gravitation - not by distorting time and distance coordinates but in absolute time and distance.

The Dynamic Universe model describes space as the surface of a four-dimensional sphere expanding in the direction of the 4-radius. Instead of being defined as a physical constant the velocity of light becomes determined by the velocity of space in the fourth dimension. The changing velocity of light and the dynamics of space allow time to be defined as a universal scalar. Local mass centres modify space in the fourth dimension, giving a space geometry with features that are closely related to those of the Schwarzschild metrics based on four-dimensional space-time. In the modified space geometry the local velocity of light is a function of the local tilting of space in the fourth dimension. The precise geometry of space makes it possible to solve the effect of the 4-D topology on Kepler's laws and the orbital equation. The perihelion shift of planetary orbits can be derived in closed mathematical form as the rotation of the main axis of Kepler's orbit relative to the reference coordinate system. For a full revolution the rotation is D_{j} = 6pGM/c^{2}a(1 - e^{2}) like the corresponding prediction in the general theory of relativity.

It is natural to think of space as finite but without edges. The simplest geometry that eliminates the edges of a structure is a sphere, and to close a three-dimensional space we need a 4-sphere, the surface of a four-dimensional ball. Describing space as the surface of a four-dimensional sphere contracting and expanding in the direction of the 4-radius gives a view of closed dynamic space where relativistic phenomena appear as consequences of the zero-energy balance in the structure. Instead of being defined as a physical constant the velocity of light appears as the velocity of space in the fourth dimension. The rest energy of mass appears as the energy of motion that mass possesses due to the motion of space and the time-like line element, cdt , in Minkowski space and Schwarzschild metrics shows the distance the 4-radius of space increases in time differential dt.

The spherical geometry together with the changing velocity of light in dynamic, spherical space converts distant observations into Euclidean geometry. Clocks in motion or subject to local gravitational interaction do not lose time because time is distorted; they actually run slower as a result of their state of motion and gravitation in space. The Dynamic Universe model(1) based on the balance of the energies of motion and gravitation in spherically closed space gives precise mathematical expression to relativistic effects and cosmological observations and shows the energy build-up and release of space as a continuous dynamic process from infinity in the past to infinity in the future.