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Prof. William L. Hughes
local time: 2022-05-22 11:19 (-06:00 DST)
Prof. William L. Hughes (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • Trouton-Noble Revisited (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    In the well known experiment proposed by Fitzgerald and performed by Trouton and Noble, it was assumed that the magnetic field generated between charged capacitor plates moving in a parallel direction would add to the total energy of the system. If the plates were hung on a torsionless suspension, the minimum energy principle was then supposed to cause the plates to turn such the plates were more perpendicular to the direction of motion. In this analysis using retarded potentials, it is shown that the total energy actually decreases slightly. Thus if any movement occurred at all, it would be to make the plates turn towards, now away, from the direction of motion, thus bringing Fitzgerald?s basic concept into question.


  • Michelson-Morley, Trouton-Noble, Kennedy-Thorndike, and the Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    In the late 19th century, G.F. Fitzgerald and H.A. Lorentz independently suggested that the null result of the MM experiment would occur if the transverse arm contracted when it was rotated to become the longitudinal arm. Simultaneously, of course, the longitudinal arm would have to expand as it rotated to become the transverse arm, although this detail is seldom if ever mentioned. The two arms would then interchange, roles leaving the final fringe pattern unchanged. In a paper presented by this author in absentia at the 2005 NPA meeting, a case was made that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction (FLC) was derivable (for simple shapes at least) from conventional electromagnetic retarded potential theory in a Maxwell-Newton world, without the need to invoke the Special Theory Of Relativity (SRT). While that certainly didn?t invalidate SRT, it did indicate that SRT was perhaps not needed to explain MM. That analysis strongly suggests that the time differences of clocks going around the world in different directions is possibly explainable in a strictly classical Maxwell-Newton world, again without the need to invoke relativistic considerations. It is also suggested in a companion paper in this meeting that the Trouton-Noble results may not be a particularly solid basis for justifying SRT either, a result also shown in a highly sensitive experiment some years ago by Hayden. Finally, it is suggested that a more definitive experiment to validate or invalidate FLC might be a modification and refinement of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment taking advantage of the velocity of the solar system through the cosmos.


  • Michelson-Morley Revisited, or Can the Michelson-Morley Be Real? (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]

    This paper is an update of the Storrs 2005 paper of same title.  It provides an electromagnetic analysis indicating that the much-touted null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is perfectly reasonable from Maxwell-Newton classical considerations, without the need to invoke the special theory of relativity.  The anaysis also provides an alternative classical explanation for clocks going around the world in different directions running at different times, again without the need to consider relativistic theory.  It suggests that reexamination of other classical experiments, such as Trouten-Noble and Kennedy-Thorndike, may be in order.


  • A Challenge to Coulomb's Law: Implications for Gravity and Matter Structure (2004) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    "Yet we cannot rest satisfied until the deeper unity between the gravitation and electrical properties of the world is apparent" - Sir Arthur Eddington.

    "Universal gravitation is merely a residual phenomenon of electrical attraction and repulsion" - Michael Faraday.

    Any idea that attractive and repulsive forces are of even slightly different magnitude flies in the face of Coulomb's law. But experiments with magnets have tended to support such an idea. This paper reports on an ongoing research program in which a past GED author has been joined by his then-reviewers to carry on with the idea and really explore its ramifications.

    * Portions also printed in Proceedings of the NPA, V1, N1, pp. 49-56 (2004).


  • On Kopernicky?s Conjecture: Gravity is a Difference Between Electrostatic Attraction and Repulsion (2004) [Updated 5 years ago]

    Some time ago, the editor asked this author to review the manuscript submitted by Jaroslav Kopernicky suggesting that the attractive force between unlike electrical charges may be slightly greater than the repulsive force between like charges. Since all electrically neutral bodies are composed of combinations of positive and negative charges, Kopernicky suggested that this slight difference might account for gravitational forces. This paper seeks to analyze Kopernicky's concept.


  • A Simple Mathematical Model Which Suggests an Electromagnetic Basis for Inertial Mass (1995) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    It is shown that a linearly accelerated charge generates an electric field which opposes its own acceleration in the same direction as the Newtonian force created by an accelerated mass.  A case can be made that an overall electrically neutral mass would still experience a similar force opposing acceleration.  Finally, if the charge is spinning at the speed of light, one can account for relativistic changes of inertial mass.


  • A Second Look at a Fundamental Concept in Electromagnetics (1994) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    It is worthwhile to examine more closely the concept that an electric current is defined by the product of charge times its velocity, or simply by the quantity of coulomb charge that passes a given point per unit time. It is suggested that this definition is sometimes inadequate to define the fields due to such a current, even if it is a d-c current, when the charge velocity is even a significant fraction of the speed of light. The fact will be demonstrated by analyzing the fields of a spinning charged ring on a time retarded basis. In the process, some interesting characteristics of spinning charges will be present.