Abstracts Details

This paper proposes a clear test of the relativistic assumption of the relativity of simultaneity. Special relativity assumes that two relatively moving observers instantaneously collocated will see light from a distant event at the same place and time. This assumption is embedded in Einstein’s original train embankment thought experiment. It is reconciling this assumption with the presumed constancy of the speed of light that led to relativistic length contraction and time dilation for the moving observer. An uncomfortable by product is that these two observers can no longer agree on where and when an event occurred. If they are viewing two separated events, and one observer concludes the events occurred simultaneously, the other observer will conclude that the two events were not simultaneous—thus the relativity of simultaneity. Two events that are simultaneous in one reference frame are not simultaneous in a different reference frame.

Until recent years, a test of the relativity of simultaneity would not have been possible. A direct test has never been attempted due to the great distances, high speeds and extremely small variances in time to be observed. Even if these could all be overcome, the ability to perform one part of the experiment in the moving frame and obtain results that do not require converting back to the stationary frame are extremely problematical.

But currently, we have many satellites at distances of 20K km and greater, routinely transmitting with carrier signals in the GHz range. We are able to accurately model the ephemerides of these satellites, and even account for atmospheric disturbances. We have very stable oscillators in the same range in lab environments, with the ability to phase-lock their outputs to another signal, and phase detectors able to provide voltage outputs proportional to the difference in phase of signals with wavelengths in the 20 cm and smaller range. Similarly, clock and code signals can be compared in the same manner as phase shifts by combing signals. Phase detection is a much simpler and preferred method for determining subtle differences in light travel times. The most notable example in recent times is the LIGO gravitational wave detector, which uses an interferometer with 2.5-mile arms to detect an extremely subtle phase shift due to the varying gravitational field caused by rapidly orbiting black holes. As will be shown, the proper use of phase measurements eliminates any reliance on clock synchronization between the “moving” and “stationary” frames, or between either of these frames and the source itself, and allows for a realistic test of relativistic simultaneity.

The velocity *c = (e _{0}u_{0})^{1/2}* appears in Maxwell's equations, but these equations say nothing about that velocity with respect to an absolute background and give no reference frame against which the velocity is measured. All experimenters obtain the same values for

*e*and

_{0}*u*, so the observed velocity is the same in any observer's reference frame. As the speed of the moving observer can assume any value, the EM energy or wave leaving the source must have speed components in a continuous range, including

_{0}*c*as measured in any arbitrary reference frame. This frame independent nature of Maxwell's equations does not prohibit a range of velocities, but instead dictates this to be so, and herein we develop a Galilean invariant form of Maxwell's equations. Thus, Maxwell's equations indicate there are physically detectable components of any EM energy that reach an observer faster or slower than a component traveling at

*c*as measured by that observer. It is this peculiar nature of light that led to the development of special relativity, but it is shown that the Lorentz transformations are nothing more than an elegant manipulation of the Galilean transformations with no physical basis of support. A direct consequence of this demonstration is the possibility of superluminal communications and travel.

Utilizing the principle of equivalence and the radiation continuum model of EM radiation, it is demonstrated that Newton's gravitational potential applies only for static or slowly moving objects. The addition of velocity dependent terms, derivable from the principle of equivalence and the equivalence of matter and energy, produces the full dynamic gravitational potential. This dynamic potential is applied to the problem of Mercury's orbit and photon deflection, fully accounting both, and providing a result identical in form and value to that obtained utilizing the curved space-time of GRT.

Special relativity (SRT) was born on the basis of a Gedanken experiment involving the relative simultaneity of distant events as perceived by observers with different inertial velocities. It is this assumed aspect of special relativity that is most troubling to one?s intuition, accustomed as we are to living in a world of absolute, not relative, simultaneity. Regardless of the adequacy of special relativity to present a true model of the nature of space and time, the theory at least presents a mathematical equivalence to most problems to which it is applied. Such tests include Doppler effects, clock retardation, and apparent mass increase with velocity. As such, further tests of these effects to ever greater precision are not likely to produce any new insights into the validity of special relativity. Surprisingly, however, an actual test of the most troubling aspect of SRT ? relative simultaneity ? has already been performed, and it demonstrates that relativistic simultaneity, in the form of the relativistic velocity addition formula, is correct (on author?s web site).

Special relativity (SRT) is incompatible with quantum theory. The major discrepancy arises from a conflict with Bell's theorem which states that any model of reality must be non-local; that is, information must travel faster than light in any acceptable model of reality. If Bell's model is correct, we live in a superluminal reality, in violation of SRT, which states that no information can travel faster than c. This paper presents a model of light that is completely compatible with quantum theory and that is also compatible with all experiments performed to date in support of SRT. The resulting treatment of this model applied to Maxwell's equations produces a Galilean relativistic form, eliminating the concepts of length contraction and time dilation, while still supporting all secondary effects such as apparent mass increase with velocity, clock slowing under acceleration, and the solar deflection of light, to name a few. As with SRT, this is an etherless model, evoking no preferred rest frame, and supports experiments including Michelon-Morley, Michel- son-Gale, Fizeau and others. In addition to its compatibility with quantum theory, this interpretation of light's observed properties opens up the very real possibility of communications systems sharing information at speeds far in excess of c, as would be necessary for interstellar communications and deep space probes and travel.

Utilizing only the principles of equivalence and conservation of energy, the customary equations for the slowing of clocks due to motion are derived. It is shown that clocks slow proportionally to a Galilean transformation of the energy of the clock system from the initial rest frame of the clock to the new, moving inertial reference frame. Utilizing the same reasoning for the case of increasing gravitational potential, the customary equations for the slowing of clocks in a gravitational field are derived. This analysis, applied to the radiation continuum model of EM radiation, results in the correct equations for the time delay of a solar grazing light or radio signal. By considering the characteristic frequency absorbed or emitted by a hydrogen atom, it is demonstrated that only motion relative to the rest frame in which a clock is calibrated causes slowing. Thus if two observers initially in motion with respect to each other each construct identical clocks, at rest in their own inertial frames, the clocks will record identical time. If either clock is then placed in motion relative to the inertial frame in which it was calibrated, it will slow according to the energy considerations associated with this motion. A thought experiment involving riders on two trains exchanging and comparing the readings on atomic clocks explains the so-called "twin paradox" without resorting to either SRT or GRT. The derived equations are used to successfully analyze the Hafele-Keating traveling clocks experiment, and to illustrate a flaw in pulsar timing algorithms.

Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft indicate an apparent, constant skewing between the predicted and observed Doppler shifts. The analysis takes account of ?the effects of planetary perturbations, radiation pressure, the interplanetary media, general relativity, and bias and drift in the range and Doppler.? All such effects change with time, act in the wrong direction or are too negligible in size to account for the observed frequency offsets. This offset has been attributed to a possible acceleration of 8.5 X 10-8 cm/s2 directed toward the sun for both craft. Any potential gravitometric models and systemic problems seem to fail in explaining this discrepancy. Lack of physical explanation for the effect requires a close look at the algorithms used to convert a series of observed signals on the rotating, solar-orbiting Earth to a more inertial frame, such as the solar barycenter. The observed anomalous shift contains an overall, fairly static component, as well as a smaller component with an annual periodic variation. It is difficult to imagine any gravitational anomaly that would be tied to the period of earth's orbit around the sun. The values for both of these observed anomalous shifts are tied quite closely to high order values of v/c, where v represents the speed of the earth's orbit about the sun and of the receding spacecraft, and c is the speed of light. The anomalous signals seem to indicate an error in the application of relativistic Doppler corrections to the data rather than any new physics as proposed by Anderson, et al.

The experiments of Fizeau, et al., in the years 1851-1925 were all designed to test for the motion of the Earth through the presumed aether, or to test for the extent to which the aether was constrained and carried in a moving, material medium. The results of these experiments defined the Fresnel coefficient of aether drag and the Lorentz Transformations, each formulated to explain the nature of the aether as evidenced by the data obtained. Building on these results (and much original thought), Einstein developed the Special Theory of Relativity, keeping many of the results in form, but abandoning the aether. Analyzing the results of these experiments without the assumption of an aether eliminates the Fresnel aether drag coefficient, the Lorentz Transformation, length contraction and time dilation, and, with this, the basis for Special Relativity. The correct form and value for the solutions are then derived utilizing Galilean Transformations.

Anomalous Pioneer 10/11 radio metric data indicate an apparent, constant skewing between predicted and observed Doppler shifts. This indicates a possible acceleration of 8.5 X 10-8 cm/s2 toward the Sun for both craft. Gravitometric models and systemic problems fail to explain the discrepancy. The anomalous signals, fully accountable in Galilean modeling, seem to indicate an error in the relativistic Doppler equations rather than any new

physics. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), due for launch by NASA in 2007, will be able to determine directly whether length contraction (as

introduced by the Earth's changing motion with respect to the stars) exists. With a resolution of 1 microarcsecond per degree, its resolution far exceeds the expected relativistic effect of +/-18 microarcseconds per degree. This project represents the first direct test of relativistic length contraction" in 100 years since that theories introduction.

Anomalous Pioneer 10/11 radio metric data indicate an apparent, constant skewing between predicted and observed Doppler shifts. This indicates a

possible acceleration of 8.5 X 10-8 cm/s^{2} toward the Sun for both craft. Gravitometric models and systemic problems fail to explain the discrepancy. However, by using Galilean Doppler equations (without the time-dilation component of special relativity) in the data reduction algorithms, the "anomaly" disappears. This includes an alleged Earth-year periodic which could have no physical basis as far as the distant spacecraft are concerned. The anomalous signals, fully accountable in Galilean modeling, seem to indicate an error in the relativistic Doppler equations rather than any new physics.

The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), due for launch by NASA in 2007, will be able to determine directly whether length contraction exists. As the Earth orbits the sun, its velocity against a given field of background stars changes by 30 km/sec every three months. According to special relativity, this changing velocity introduces a contraction or expansion of the relative spacing between stars of as much as 18 microarcseconds per degree of separation. With a resolution of 1 microarcsecond per degree, more than 100 times more sensitive than any mission to date, SIM's resolution far exceeds the expected relativistic effect. This project represents the first direct test of relativistic length contraction, just in time for the 100 year anniversary of that theory's introduction.

Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and II spacecraft indicate an apparent, constant skewing between the predicted and observed Doppler shifts. This offset has been attributed to a possible acceleration of 8.0 x 10^{-8} cm/s^{2} directed toward the sun for both craft. Any potential gravitometric models and systemic problems seem to fail in explaining this discrepancy. The value of the observed anomalous shift is shown to equal the difference between the calculated values for Newtonian and special relativistic Doppler expressions. The primary difference between these two equations is the time-dilation term of special relativity. For there to be a systemic problem in the equipment that exactly matches the presumed special relativistic Doppler time-dilation offsets for the specit1c velocities of the Earth and the Pioneer spacecraft would be a coincidence beyond comprehension. The anomalous signals seem to indicate a preference for the Newtonian values and a det1ciency of the relativistic Doppler corrections rather than any new gravitational physics. If proved correct, these results would place severe constraints on the applicable domain of special relativity.

Dimensional analysis of Maxwell's equations in a planar electromagnetic wave fonn interpreted in a certain way imply wave propagation at a speed of *c*. defined as *((epsilon) _{0}(mu)_{0})^{1/2}*. Such analysis does not specify anything at all about the specific values of

*(epsilon)*or

_{0}*(mu)*. Thus Maxwell's equations in and of themselves say nothing about the specific velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave through space or with respect to a given source. The generally accepted frame-invariance of c. and hence

*(epsilon)*and

_{0}*(mu)*, independent of the motion of the source (and thus independent of the relative motion between source and observer) constitutes an

_{0}*assumption*. The Lorentz transformations are required in order to retain the form of Maxwell's equations in any inertial frame of reference (IFR) under this assumption, an assumption that Einstein raised to the status of a postulate. This paper demonstrates that such an assumption is too restrictive to form the basis for a postulate. Relaxing the restriction on

*c*imposed by Einstein's second postulate results in an alternative aether-free Galilean invariant solution, eliminating length contraction and time dilation. This solution restores common sense concepts of space, time and simultaneity and fully supports all experimental and observational results yet produced.

Special relativity theory (SRT) was born on the basis of a gedanken experiment involving the relative simultaneity of distant events as perceived by observers with different inertial velocities. It is this assumed aspect of special relativity that is most troubling to our intuition, accustomed as we are to living in a world of absolute, not relative, simultaneity. Regardless of the adequacy of special relativity to accurately model the true nature of space and time, the theory at least presents a mathematical equivalence to most problems to which it is applied. Such tests include Doppler effects, clock retardation and apparent mass increase with velocity. As such, further tests of these effects to even greater precision are not likely to produce any new insights into the validity of SRT. Surprisingly, however, no actual test of the most troubling aspect of SRTrelative simultaneity -has ever been performed. Yet such a test is feasible with the current technology If such a test supports SRT, then almost all competing theories must fall by the wayside. A negative result, however, would clearly invalidate SRT. This paper presents the details of such a test.

Many of the so-called "quantum paradoxes? involving double-slit and similar experiments exist only because of the acceptance of Einstein'S second postulate of special relativity. One can relax the constraints imposed by this postulate by requiring only that observed speed of light is c as measured with respect to the observer. When this is done, all of the apparent paradoxes disappear, and the results of all double-slit and so-called delayed-choice experiments become trivial in their explanation. This paper addresses some of the more famous experiments, with explanations in terms of the modified second postulate.

*IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine*, V12, N2 (1997).

Due to the nature of their orientation with respect to the line-of-sight to Earth, jets of gas leaving energetic sources occasionally have the appearance of moving faster than light when viewed from the Earth. While the inferred velocities of such jets with respect to their source, calculated under the tenets of SRT, are less than c, they are still very close to c. However, certain orientations require that, under the assumptions of SRT, the jets must have a velocity with respect to their source which exceeds c. Under models other than SRT, the velocities required under these same configurations remain less than c. Studying such jets throughout the cosmos presents a great test for Einstein?s second postulate, since there may indeed be jets who?s orientation to the line-of sight imply, under SRT, an inferred speed with respect to their source in excess of c. Even considering configurations already observed, a comparison of the energy required to produce jets at speeds approaching c under SRT (including relativistic mass increase) to the energy available from the source should provide a strong test of SRT.

*IEEE AES Systems Magazine 11 (1) pp. 27-31 (**Jan 1996**).* We have seen in a previous paper that it is the act of a moving clock out of one inertial frame of reference (IFR) and into another IFR which causes the clock to slow [1]. But what of identical clocks constructed and calibrated in different IFRs? This paper takes a looks at such a scenario, demonstrating that two such clocks would tick synchronously and concludes with a new look at the famous "twin-paradox" of special relativity, SRT.

Millisecond pulsar timing algorithms place all measurements into a solar-centered reference frame, which is assumed to be inertial with respect to the Earth, after correcting the Earth's motion to that of a perfectly circular orit in a constant gravitational field. However, this analysis is valid only if the pulsar exhibits no proper motion with respect to solar barycenter. Since this is likely never to be the case, a relativistic correction must be made to account for the Earth's constantly changing velocity with respect to the reference frame of the pulsar source. This correction takes the form of a periodic timing residual, on the order or microseconds, which should be detectable through the use of pulsar timing arrays, low period pulsars with large proper motions. The absence of such a residual may constitute a failure of special relativity.

Maxwell's equations do not in themselves predict a specific value for the constant (or variable) *c *which appears in them. This value is determined experimentally as the relative velocity at which a photon must strike an observer in order to be absorbed. By modifying the second postulate to state: "The observed velocity of light is *c* from all frames of reference," the radiation continuum model (RCM) of electromagnetic radiation is developed. On the basis of this model, a Galilean invariant form of Maxwell's equation if obtained. Equations for transverse and radial Doppler shift are derived. An analysis of the force on a moving charge above a neutral current carrying wire is provided from varying reference frames without reporting to SRT or Lorentz transformations. An application to particle accelerators explains the apparent mass increase with velocity.

The experiments of Fizeau, et al, in the years 1851-1925 were all designed to test for the motion of the Earth through the presumed aether, or to test for the extent to which the aether was constrained and carried in a moving, material medium. The results of these experiments resulted in the Fresnel coefficient of aether drag and the Lorentz transformations, each designed to explain the nature of the aether as evidenced by the data obtained. Building on these results (and much original thought), Einstein developed the special theory of relativity, keeping many of the results in form, but abandoning the aether. Analysing the results of these experiments without the assumption of an aether eliminates the Fresnel aether drag coefficient, the Lorentz transformation, length contraction and time dilation, and, with thiis, the basis for special relativity. The correct form and value for the solutions are then derived utilizing Galilean transformations.

*IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine.*