Light has a hitherto unnoticed property. Einstein said that light has mass. If light has mass, then it must also have a gravitation potential. We suggest that is the constant gravitation potential of light and energy, which we call the c-square potential. A sample of the arguments used to justify this suggestion include the following: the c-square potential is consistent with the bending of light in a gravitational field, is the largest possible gravitation potential, is familiar from the definition of spacetime, constitutes the space-filling gravitational field far away from masses (limiting case of a ?matterless universe?), and has been overlooked because of the use of geometrized units. If the c-square potential is valid, then the Einstein field equations have something quite new to offer for the 21st century.
The abstract below is the overture to a joint paper which was to be Bob Heaston's latest publication on a subject that he shared with me during the past years. It became Bob's last paper. He was kind enough to take me aboard as co-author. In memory of Bob, a brilliant fellow scientist with varied interests and a good fried, I discuss the history and intention of the paper, its principal idea, and the reply from the editor of Annalen der Physik.
John Archibald Wheeler, one of the three co-authors of Gravitation, probably wrote in 1973 the last words in the text that said ?Gravitational collapse is . . . the greatest crisis of physics of all time.? Wheeler was referring to the prediction by Einstein that matter ultimately collapses to a singularity and the breakdown of physical laws. Reconstruction of the Einstein derivation of his field equations of general relativity indicates a new interpretation that resolves the gravitational collapse crisis. Matter does not collapse to a singularity. The collapse of matter under the gravitational force reaches a finite limit that exhibits all the attributes of a phase change where any matter is converted into energy. This phase change is a third alternative to fission and fusion for the conversion of matter to energy. Six different characteristics have been defined for the onset of this phase change. Two of the six are the superforce and the Planck scale, which the standard model predicts as the point of convergence of the four fundamental forces, which include gravitation. The ferocity of nuclear explosions and the catastrophic nature of supernova could both be due to the release of the superforce in the transition of mass to energy. Big bang theory, inflation theory, models of black holes, and string theory are all impacted by resolution of Wheeler's crisis. The 21st century physics paradigm would be drastically changed if matter collapses to energy rather than a singularity. TOPIC AREA: Gravity or Energy.
Einstein considered the discovery of the equivalence principle as ?die gl?ckichste Gedanke? in his life. Whether translated as ?the happiest thought?, ?luckiest thought,? or ?the most fortunate thought,? Einstein formulated the equivalence principle as the result of an epiphany he experienced in October or November 1907. He regarded the equivalence principle as the beginning step in adding gravitation to the special theory of relativity to create general relativity. Why? James Prescott Joule published a paper ?On the Mechanical Value of Heat? in 1850 and started an avalanche of interest in the equivalence of different forms of energy. Equivalence was the hot new addition to the 19th century physics paradigm. Heat was also considered then as a mode of motion that led to the kinetic theory of gases, statistical analysis, Avogadro's number, the motion of atoms and molecules and Einstein's paper on Brownian motion. Einstein could not help but be aware of the significant meaning of equivalence to physics. An overly simplistic interpretation of the equivalence principle is that ?gravitation is acceleration.? But there is much more to this interpretation because the equivalence principle is at the heart of the derivation of the field equations of general relativity. Various definitions of the equivalence principle in the literature are analyzed and put into perspective. Recognition of the overall importance of the equivalence principle leads to a dramatically new understanding of the general theory in the 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: General Relativity.
Newton's first law of motion states, ?Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted on by a force.? Special relativity theory assumes such motion. Newton's second law states, ?The change of motion from a straight line is caused by acceleration due to a force.? Changes in velocities are caused by accelerations. General relativity follows the second law. Modern technology has enabled individual objects to know their velocities using accelerometers that measure increments of acceleration or deceleration and record them. If two or more objects have this capability, each object has an on-board history of its velocity. An historical asymmetry between moving objects can be measured. Consequently, the statement in special relativity that no single object can measure its uniform velocity is not valid anymore. In addition, the principal of relativity that each object can claim to be the fastest is no longer reasonable to assume. Since length contraction, time dilation, and the twin paradox are process changes, all three occur during acceleration or deceleration and are sustained during the ensuing state of uniform motion. The only thing that is special about special relativity is that special relativity applies to point-to-point conditions of uniform motion, rather than processes that occur between the points. It is time to re-examine the role of special relativity in the 21st century paradigm of physics. TOPIC AREA: Special Relativity.
During the latter half of the 20th century, scientists agreed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of four fundamental forces: gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong. Extensive efforts to unify these forces also showed that the four forces converged on a ?superforce' at the Planck scale. These attempts at unification, particularly quantum field theory, the standard model, and string theory, failed because they were flawed for three reasons: 1) The four fundamental forces were not all characterized as force laws; 2) There is no Planck scale theory since the Planck functions of length, mass, time and energy that make up the Planck scale are artificial units that Planck defined using dimensional analysis; 3) Moreover, the Planck constant is introduced via the back door in the quantum theory definition of the weak force. Whenever so many great scientists work so hard for so long and still do not succeed, it is time to redefine the problem. Consequently, the four fundamental forces have all been redefined as force laws: Newton gravitational force, Coulomb electromagnetic force, Planck quantum force, and Einstein strong force. These four force laws, referred to as the Heaston equations, may be derived in five different ways, and result in several predictions and suggested experiments. The interactions of the redefined forces yield over 100 old and new functions of physics that provide a foundation for a 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: Cosmology and Astrophysics.
The speed of light is the mortar that holds together the 20th century physics paradigm, which we have inherited in the 21st century. Many different functions of physics use the speed of light as a proportionality constant, a necessary component, or a limiting condition. Examples abound: special relativity, general relativity, mass-energy equivalence, fine structure constant, Rydberg number, Boltzmann constant, uncertainty principle, electromagnetic spectrum, Maxwell equations, Compton wavelength, properties of free space, Planck scale and many others. Some functions, that will be described, are new to the accepted physics paradigm, such as a specific superforce and the constant gravitation potential of light. The objective of this paper is to show how much of physics is dependent upon the speed of light and to indicate how disastrous the consequences would be if the speed of light were not constant. The constant speed of light must be retained in the 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: Natural Philosophy.
One hundred years ago Einstein began his nine-year odyssey (1907-1916) toward deriving his field equations of general relativity. The difficulty of replicating this derivation exists not only because of the extreme complexity of the equations but also because Einstein omitted references, skipped steps, failed to state many of his assumptions, and neglected to define all his terms in his technical publications. On the other hand, Einstein left extensive personal correspondence that contains a number of details that trace his progress. An excellent source of this correspondence is the 1997 biography Albert Einstein by Albrecht F?lsing, Penguin Books. The objective of this paper is to match Einstein?s correspondence record with his publication record in order to reconstruct the approach that Einstein used in deriving his field equations. The reconstruction dictates the path that Einstein had to take if he wanted his field equations to converge on the Newton gravitational force. The major lesson learned from this reconstruction is that Einstein probably overlooked, ignored, or bypassed some valid alternative options that radically change the interpretation of the field equations. The most significant option reveals that singularities are theoretically impossible, an observation that negates inflation theory and modifies the explanations of theories of black holes, the big bang, and strings. The Einstein field equations are still valid but obviously need reinterpretation based upon the alternatives described here.
In NPA 2004, Heaston reported on a theoretical derivation of a gravitational potential of (...) and called it the constant gravitational potential of light and radiant energy. This derivation was a part of a more general theme on ?The Characterization of Gravitational Collapse as a Mass-Energy Phase Change?. At the same conference, Marquardt talked about ?The Potential of Potentials: Old News from a Time-Honored Concept?, and mentioned the ubiquitous background occurrence of the (...) potential. It is now possible to show that the constant gravitation potential of light is an unexpected consequence of the theoretical derivation of the Einstein field equations of gravitation starting with the Newton law of gravitation. Recognition that (...) is specifically associated with the gravitation potential of light changes the interpretations of a number of theories in physics. For example, a singularity is theoretically impossible. This paper will be presented in two parts: Part 1 focusing on the theory (Heaston) and Part 2 emphasizing the physical meaning (Marquardt).
An axiomatic general theory of knowledge, or epistemology, was developed in the 1960s and presented at international philosophy conferences. One particular presentation was at the 14th International Congress of Philosophy in Vienna, Austria in 1968, which hosted a reunion of the Vienna Circle of logical positivism. My approach, which is called matrix philosophy, is a form of propositional calculus involving surrogate concepts rather than symbols. This approach was used as a basis of a dissertation on The Philosophic Limits of Political Choice that was selected in June 1975 as one of the top-three independent research papers for the school year of 1974-1975 at the National War College in Washington, DC. Later the theory was adapted as a practical general problem-solving model to use in a PERT-like ?Management Experiment? to oversee all conventional weapons science and technology in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 1983 to 1987. The objective of this talk is to describe the epistemology, the matrix approach, the problem-solving model and the lessons learned.
Physics needs very large and very small numbers. Whether called fundamental constants, coupling constants, cosmic numbers, or number coincidences, these numbers almost seem to have magical and even mystical characteristics, especially when considered from an anthropomorphic perspective. Many scientists have been baffled by the prolific existence of certain numbers that clutter physics. Three examples will be given a physical explanation for the first time: the Dirac large number hypothesis, the Eddington number, and the ubiquitous occurrence of 10-39. The paper will conclude with a model that resolves most of the mysterious number coincidences.
It is possible to generate a log force versus log distance plot to scale by folding a piece of paper a la the Japanese art of origami. No measuring device is needed and any piece of paper may be used. The edges of the paper, the creases, and the intersections of the creases map mathematical equations. The origami approach has a number of distinct features. Results are visually displayed. Assumptions must be stated with each fold. The scale is automatically defined by the folding. Derivations are always bounded. The connectivity of relationships is guaranteed. Some concepts are more easily demonstrated by this origami process than any other way: redefinition of the four fundamental forces; convergence of different forces on the Planck scale and the superforce; identification of different number coincidences; and the unexpected relationship between the gravitational force and the experimentally measured strong/color force. Conditions will be defined where the origami is identical with a Lagrangian over the world in the standard model. The talk will proceed step-by-step through the origami folding process.
The objective of this paper is to justify the discovery that people sense time logarithmically. Several different observations support this discovery. The intensities of the senses of touch, hearing, sight, and taste are all based upon logarithmic functions. In particular, the sensing of time can be expressed in a mathematical equation called the feeling formula, which is similar in form to the Weber-Fechner Law discussed in psychology. Human emotions consistently correlate with the feeling formula. Freud was one step away from deriving this formula in his book Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Emphasis will be on the physics aspects of the human sensing of time. Experiments may be performed to verify this discovery, which would be a major breakthrough in understanding human physiology and behavior.
The four fundamental forces are normally known as the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong force, and the weak force. These forces have so many differences in physical characteristics that very complex mathematics is required to unify two or more of them. If it is assumed that the familiar Einstein and Planck energy functions actually represent the potential energies of fundamental forces, then the four fundamental forces may be redefined as the gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and the quantum force laws. Three of these forces are inverse square and one is inverse linear. These redefined forces interact to yield over 100 functions of physics. Moreover, the quantum is introduced directly into the concept of force. Five different approaches may be used to derive these forces, but that is not the intent here. The objective of this paper is to take the big picture approach and identify pieces missing in the current understanding of the design of the universe. Whether this approach is valid or not, some interesting consequences are revealed that may be pursued by other paths.
The concept of force may be mathematically expressed in such a way that a force may be defined for every quantity that a field con-serves. The components (in italics) of this definition are defined individually in statements that may be translated into mathematical language: 1) Define a field of space; 2) Define a scalar potential that is a function of position at each point in this field; 3) Define a field constant that is constant over the whole field; 4) Define the field potential as the product of the field constant and the scalar potential; 5) Define a force as the negative gradient of the field potential; 6) Define the field strength as the force per unit field constant. The field strength is also the negative gradient of the scalar potential, or the gradient vector. If it is assumed that the field constant is a quantity that is conserved by a field, then forces may be derived for each of these conserved quantities. This approach is just the inverse of current practice. Several different forces may be derived that conform to the same six steps above, based upon the conservation of mass, mass flux, momentum, angular momentum, spring constant, energy, quantum, et al.
The normal interpretation of the electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum defined by the Planck energy relationship. A different ex-planation starts with the classical radius of the electron, the Compton wavelength, and the Bohr radius. These three lengths may be related as follows. Any wavelength is equal to the Compton wavelength divided by the fine structure constant to the power. Consequently, -2 gives the classical radius, 0 is the Compton wavelength, and 2 is the Bohr radius, or minimum Bohr orbit. The maximum atomic orbit occurs at 4. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed of gamma rays (0 to 2), x-rays (2 to 4), ultraviolet (4 to 6), infrared (6 to 8), millimeter waves (8 to 10), and the Radio Spectrum with a one-band overlap (9 to 19). The electromagnetic spectrum may be extended at the high frequency end by another 21 bands to the Planck scale and extended on the low frequency end by 17 bands to the size of the Universe. The three sections define a universal spectrum.
The special issue of Scientific American for September 2004 on ?Beyond Einstein? can be summarized in four words: ?Physics needs new theories.? Eleven times, the request was for a theory of quantum gravity/relativity. It would appear from a review of the litera-ture that what is desired is some collaboration between Planck?s quantum and gravity/relativity. Much of the work has been at the Planck scale where the quantum may be associated with the Einstein field equations of general relativity. However, Hawking and Penrose suggest that quantum gravity may also occur at the curvature of the electron. An interesting coupling does occur if it is as-sumed that an electron has a surface that spins constantly at the speed of light. In this case, it is hypothesized that quantum gravity is defined by the quantized relativistic changes in mass-energy during translation that vary in lockstep with quantized spin compensation to keep the angular velocity of an electron constant at the speed of light. Several pieces of information are brought together to support this hypothesis.
Five possible reasons why gravity has been difficult to unify with other forces are: disagreement over what unification means; differences in the strengths of the forces; failure to identify common elements among the forces; assumption of geometrized units; and, an emphasis on working with energy levels rather than force magnitudes. The rationale behind this categorization of reasons is discussed.
Use of set theory to analyze why the gravitational force is so hard to unify with other forces.
The assumption is made that the transition of mass into energy, and vice versa, is a form of phase change. Several concurrent characteristics and properties accompany this phase change. Some of these characteristics are a theoretical basis for a strong-force law, an explanation for dark energy, and a specific reference frame that Einstein used. The special theory and the general theory converge at the phase change. The most surprising result of the phase-change model is that energy/light possesses a constant gravitational potential. The derivations of these characteristics are all related mathematically in a common path sequence.
For any given situation, the feeling formula uses only four variables to predict the full spectrum of human feelings from the pain of devasting panic to the pleasure of unbounded ecstasy. The variables can be clinically tested. The formula is a mathematical equation that can be expressed in six different formats that are similar to equations commonly used in physics, chemistry, and rocket science. The feeling formula unifies many seemingly divergent aspects of physiology, psychology, psychoanaylsis, and cognitive therapy, and merges them into an integrated psychoneurophysics theory of human emotions. The feeling formula is a lifelong tool for assessing one's personal psychological state. It can be used to analyze social, home, and work environments, as well as books and movies. An overview will be presented on the feeling formula and practical examples of its application.
The gravitational superforce hypothesis states: The gravitational force is always equal to a constant superforce for the same mass and distance that exists at the mass energy equivalence of the gravitation potential energy. A specific superforce that impacts a broad range of theoretical physics and cosmology is defined by this hypothesis. This superforce is suggested as a baseline for comparison with any future superforce.
An asymptote is a goal that can probably never be reached, and if reached, cannot be crossed. If crossed, there may be no return. There are at least six asymptotes that apply to our universe. A box has six sides. Consequently, we can use the metaphor that our universe is an asymptotic box. The six asymptotes of the natural world that apply to our universe are birth, death, the speed of light, absolute zero, gravitational collapse limit, and the superforce. There is also an asymptotic box of scientific reasoning. The paper will define the asymptotes and then discuss various consequences.
Part I of this three-part paper redefined the unification problem. Part II described how this redefinition could explain the coupling constants, cosmic numbers, and characteristic lengths marking bands of phenomena. Part III proposes new models of the big bang and the structure of particles. Parts I, II, and III are integrated to indicate that the design of the Universe is a gigantic network of interdependent relationships all derived from the redefined four fundamental forces.
GACIAC Bulletin, V21, N4 (March 1999). First article on prediction of a discreet structure of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Part I of this series of three papers described a mathematical method of redefining fundamental forces such that the unification problem itself was redefined. One of the ways of establishing the credibility of this approach is to predict a variety of relationships that are already known and accepted. Another approach is to give a physical explanation to relationships that have not been given a physical interpretation before. Part II answers several of the mysteries about coupling constants, cosmic numbers, and characteristic lengths. A rich structure of nature is described from 10-15 to 10-3 m.
The so-called standard model has a major shortcoming in that it introduces each of the fundamental forces differently. This criticism is overcome by defining the concept of force mathematically with a generic field theory. The result is the redefinition of the so-called unification problem, which easily resolves a number of criticisms of the standard model. This is the first of a three-part paper. Subsequent Parts describe the impact of the approach taken in Part I.
Einstein and other physicists who have emulated him, assumed for convenience in manipulations of the Einstein field equations that the speed of light, c, and the universal gravitational constant, G, were equal to unity, c = G = 1. This arbitrary practice prevented the recognition that c4/G, which is present in the Einstein field equations, is a superforce equal to 1.2 .1044 newtons. This superforce plays a major role in relationships with the Planck functions, gravitational luminosity, vacuum energy density of the inflationary big bang, derivations of combinations of fundamental constants, relativistic effects in astrophysical bodies, and quantum relativity. Moever, with the awareness of c4/G, it is possible to derive a relationship that quantizes the gravitational luminosity, L, as well as other radiation flux, as L=hv2.
A theory, called the generic field theory, has been derived that provides a new mathematical definition of the concept of force that is independent of any phenomenon, including Newton's laws of motion. The generic definitions are tied to nature through the hypothesis that a force may be defined for every quantity which a field conserves. Of the eleven forces which are so defined for conserved quantities, the choice of which are fundamental is based upon the further assumption that fundamental forces must be based on fundamental constants. The resulting redefinition of the four fundamental forces retains the strong, electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. The weak interaction drops out and is replaced by a new interaction called the quantum interaction. The four redefined forces possess specific equations as a function of distance which are used to derive over a hundred known relationships of physics and astrophysics. A number of predictions are also made. the inclusiveness of the resulting synthesis suggests that the generic field theory is either a powerful mneumonic tool or that it may represent a major step beyond grand unification towards a super unification of forces.
12th Annual Army Science Conference, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, Army Science Conference Proceedings, V2, Principle Authors E thru M, pp. 203-217 (17-20 June 1980). Progress report on the Heaston equations and request to derive potentials.
First publication of the Heaston equations.
Abstract Physics-20, 143rd National Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) held in conjunction with the 53rd Annual Meeting of the AAAS Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division, Denver, CO (20-25 February 1977). First public presentation of the Heaston equations.