The speed of light according to the Special Theory of Relativity has the same value C with respect to any inertial frame of reference in 4-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. An attempt to build an alternative physical model in 3-dimensional Euclidean space brings up a question: in what frame of reference does light move with the speed C? Series of experiments and mathematical reasoning suggest that: 1) the speed of a photon emitted by an atom equals to C if measured with respect to the atom if the atom is at rest or moving with a constant speed with respect to a 3-dimensional inertial frame of reference; 2) the speed of light acquires the value of a constant C near Earth, Sun and other large masses; the energy of the photon depends on the gravitational potential, 3) light has inertial properties.
Experiments in Quantum mechanics have three practically independent stages: ''preparatory'', ''theoretical'', and ''measuring''. The ''theoretical'' one is based on the Schredinger Equation which determines the particle's state in different moments of time before measurement. Even if one uses the standard probabilistic interpretation of a wave function one can show that the Schredinger Equation describes possible trajectories of a quantum particle and speeds of this particle on the trajectories. The mathematical development of this approach leads to the idea that during the motion of an electron in an atom the structures are formed in the physical vacuum.
In the present work the author suggests a to the idea of "hidden variables" as a physical field (ether). It is shown below that the Schr?dinger equation can be derived from the deterministic laws of classical mechanics under the assumption that the ether exists. The reasoning is based to a great extent on the works of N.G. Chetaev. Formulas derived in the present work for the velocity of an elementary particle and for the forces exerted on the particle by the ether coincide precisely with those derived by V.A. Kotel'nikov using the standard probabilistic interpretation of the Schr?dinger equation. Therefore, the proposed classical approach agrees with the probabilistic one, and hence with standard experiments. The mathematical development of the proposed model when applied to an atom leads to the idea that structures are formed in the ether inside the atom. From the standpoint of this model, De Broglie's ?law of phase harmony? has a new physical interpretation.
In 1908 Walter von Ritz suggested that the speed of light is equal to the constant c only when measured relative to the source. Ritz systematically redeveloped Maxwellian electrodynamics bringing it into agreement with this hypothesis. Assuming that c is the speed of light at the output of the light source and that the law of velocity addition from classical mechanics is valid for the case of a moving source, the results of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, the aberration of starlight, and a number of other related experimental results come into agreement. The single objection to the hypothesis at that time was provided by astronomical observations of the motion of binary stars. The Ritz theory came to an end with the work of W. de Sitter (1913) who claimed to have a convincing argument for showing that the hypothesis of Ritz was inconsistent with the results of spectroscopic observations of binary stars. A hidden postulate in de Sitter's argument, however, is that the speed of light propagating from the stars is not affected by anything. To refute de Sitter's argument, it would be sufficient to assume that the speed of light adjusts to the value of c at the vicinity of Earth and other celestial bodies. The authors show that this assumption added to the Ritz hypothesis explains well spectroscopic observations of the binary stars. This combined hypothesis: the Ritz ballistic hypothesis and the adjustment of the speed of light to c near celestial bodies (in particular near the Earth), also explains experiments performed at CERN in 1964. An additional argument in favor of the suggested hypothesis is the derivation of the formula for the transverse Doppler Effect presented in this work.
One of the peculiarities of biological chemistry is that in a living organism the molecules are built under control of enzymes. In this process bimolecules act as well-tuned mechanisms, that conflicts with a concept of molecule as a quantum system that is governed by probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics. The question arises whether deterministic behavior of biomolecules can be understood by the traditional scientific methods at all or whether one can do so by the introduction of additional forces and fields in quantum physics. In the author's opinion if we return to the idea of ?hidden variables? it becomes possible to get rid of the probabilistic interpretation of the quantum formalism. As is well known, the Schroedinger equation is the main postulate of quantum mechanics. Therefore, if we are going to introduce any previously unknown forces to Quantum Mechanics, we should preserve the Schroedinger equation ? perhaps by interpreting it differently. In this work it is proved that the Schroedinger equation can be derived from the deterministic laws of classical mechanics. In this case the Schroedinger equation is a necessary condition of a stable motion of a particle. In the author's view during the motion of electrons in an atom the structures are formed in the physical vacuum. The forces caused by these structures serve to stabilize the electrons' motion along the orbits corresponding to eigen values of energy. If consider these structures as quasi-particles of physical vacuum that have spin, then the natural frequencies of the atom are the frequencies of the precession of the quasi-particles' spin.
The possibility of developing the theory of light within the framework of three-dimensional Euclidean space with time independent of the spatial coordinates is substantiated. The new physical concept that allows for creating a theory alternative to special relativity is a notion of the photon as a complex object with intrinsic motions whose energy has to be taken into account in applying conservation laws to the detection of the photon. It is shown that by having rejected the principle of ?universal' relativity it is possible to derive the experimentally proven formulas describing both longitudinal and transverse Doppler effects, and the formula for propagation of light in a moving medium.
The postulates of special relativity ascribe to light certain kinematic properties that are independent of the reference frame, provided the frame is inertial. As is known, the quantum concepts, not classical ones, are applicable to light in the general case. In studies of quantum objects (the photon or field of light), the role of the physical frame of reference as well as the role of measurement is especially important. In this case, the frame of reference is practically inseparable from the concrete physical laboratory where measurement takes place.
Ascribing of a priori properties to light is inconsistent, for example, with the experiments of the EPR type, in which a quantum correlation between the measured characteristics of photon, such as frequency, polarization, etc., is observed. How can one, for example, use the relativistic Doppler formula for calculation of the frequency of a photon out of a pair of frequency-correlated photons!? The experiments of the EPR type prove that one may speak for certain of those properties of light only that have been revealed at measurement. From this viewpoint, there is sense to discuss only the readings of measurement instruments.
We show using the Fizeau and Doppler effects that if interaction between light (photons) and the detector is taken into account the experimentally proven kinematics formulas of special relativity can be derived in the framework of three-dimensional Euclidean space with time independent of the spatial coordinates. Notice that those formulas refer to the main conclusions from relativistic kinematics that have been confirmed experimentally.
The new physical concept that allows for creating a theory alternative to special relativity is a notion of the photon as a complex object with intrinsic motions whose energy has to be taken into account in the conservation laws at the detection of the photon. We obtained the formula for the transformation of the energy of photon from one inertial (in the sense of Galileo) frame to another one. According to the formula, the energy of a circularly polarized photon is transformed in accordance with the same equation as the energy of the moving material object having intrinsic rotations with respect to the center of mass. It is consistent with the concept of the photon as a quasi-particle in the physical vacuum, having the mass of the motion and angular momentum.
The nature of light being a subject of intensive research and speculation over the centuries still remains a "dark" issue of modern physics. It has been established that light transfers energy from the source to the receiver by discrete portions, the quanta. However, there is no unified point of view on the nature of the material carrier of the light quantum, that is, the photon. There are several types of photon used in descriptions of the experiments that demonstrate quantum optical effects. The difference in usage of the term "photon" reflects the difference in interpretation of the results of such experiments.
Among quantum optical effects the so-called "essentially quantum effects" that have no classical analogues are worth special mentioning. Such effects cannot be described in the framework of the semi-classical model based on the Maxwell equations, and quantum models are used to describe the effects.