A first-order Galilean-invariant covering theory of Maxwell?s equations of vacuum electromagnetism, first proposed by Heinrich Hertz, is reappraised in modern context. Physically, when properly formulated and interpreted for electromagnetic description, Hertz? theory is found to be both necessary, and ? insofar as the empirical facts are presently known ? sufficient. Mathematically, its use of the total time derivative instead of the Maxwellian partial time derivative is shown to be logically necessary under broadly applicable conditions. The physical superiority of the Hertzian formulation in the weak-field limit is emphasized.
The theoretical basis is found for previously experimentally uncovered evidence that signals can be transmitted at superluminary velocities by fine wires. The effect is shown to depend on the existence of variables-separable type solutions, unrecognized heretofor, to the partial integro-differential equations of classical transmission line theory.
- V11, N4, pp. 5439-5446.
- V12, N2, pp. 5653-5665
Includes comments by Harold Milnes
Comments by Harold Milnes
Comments by Harold Milnes
Comments by Harold Milnes
A series of experiments is reported that apparently contradicts Coulomb's law, the two?]fluid doctrine of electrical charges, and Du Fay's dictum that ?glike?h and ?gunlike?h charges, respectively, repel and attract one another. A simple yet highly sensitive apparatus is described, by means of which the experiments have been performed. With it, single charges are put into motion; pairs of charges are exhibited, one of which remains stationary, while the second moves towards or away from the first; and a pair of charged bodies has been shown for which one is attracted to the other, while the other is repelled from the first. None of these effects are included under the aforementioned hypotheses, fundamental to classical electromagnetism.
"Theory of Electricity" was Harold Milnes' most significant contribution to the Toth-Maatian Review, serialized over several years of publication:
- V6, N1, pp. 2955-2979; N2, pp. 3043-3057; N3, pp. 3139-3164; N4, pp. 3296-3318
- V7, N1, pp. 3439-3505; N2, pp. 3603-3612; N3, pp. 3775-3786; N4, pp. 3853-3864
- V8, N2, pp. 4045-4060; N3, pp. 4135-4141; N4, pp. 4277-4303
- V9, N2, pp. 4413-4422; N3, pp. 4603-4626; N4, pp. 4695-4713
- V10, N3, pp. 4991-4992
- V11, N1, pp. 5163-5168
- V12, N2, pp. 5637-5652
Part II, Refractive Delay (paper has been withdrawn)
Part III, Aberration and Refraction at Moving Boundaries:
- V3, N3, pp. 1287-1337
- V5, N4, pp. 2769-2800
- V7, N1, pp. 3439-3444; N2, pp. 3643-3646
- V9, N1, pp. 4353-4362; N2, pp. 4451-4456
- V10, N2, pp. 4889-4900; N3, pp. 4993-5000
- V12, N2, pp. 5666-5672
We show that if the Lorentz transformation equations are routinely applied to compute the expected arrival times of two photons simultaneously emitted from a star source, then a large time difference is predicted between the instants when the photons would be seen by observers moving in opposite directions at velocities equal to the surface velocity of Earth at its equator, or its orbital velocity. In the case of the binary star Rigel, located only 250pc from Earth, observers stationed on opposite sides of the equator should note a discrepancy of 11.05 hrs.; in the caseof observers at opposed points of the Earth's orbit, moving with the mean orbital velocity of Earth, it should be 29.59 days. Since no such anomalies occur, the principle that the velocity of light is c relatively to every observer is false, and the Lorentz transform equations cannot be validly applied to astronomical observations.
We also cast very serious doubt on the general validity of the reciprocity of inertial reference frames, as a consequence of Zeeman's experimental observations with moving quartz rods.
This paper refers to a theoretical derivation and a simple experiment that permitted electrical signals to greatly exceed the speed of light. This derivation follows directly from Maxwell's equations. The special conditions involved extremely thin electrical conductors with very low capacitance and inductance.
Tales of Toth: Fairy Tales of Physics was an ongoing polemic by Harold Milnes, introducing each issue of his Toth-Maatian Review. Often sarcastic, always witty, these "stories" hit hard into the heart of mainstream physics. They appeared as follows:
- Introduction, V1, N1, pp. 5-10.
- Number 1, V1, N2, pp. 127-130; N3, pp. 228-235.
- Number 2, V1, N4, pp. 325-335.
- Number 3, V2, N1, pp. 426-431.
- Number 4, V2, N2, pp. 531-537.
- Number 5, V2, N3, pp. 631-638; N4, pp. 819-824; V3, N1, pp. 953-965; N2, pp. 1089-1095; N3, pp. 1261-1272.
- Number 6, V3, N4, pp. 1463-1466; V4, N1, pp. 1629-1632; N2, pp. 1769-1771; N3, pp. 1947-1949; N4, pp. 2109-2166; V5, N1, pp. 2305-2308; N2, 2455-2457.
- Number 7, V5, N3, pp. 2605-2606; N4, pp. 2743-2746.
- Number 8, V6, N1, pp. 2899-2901.
- Number 9, V6, N2, pp. 3037-3041; N3, pp. 3135-3138; N4, pp. 3269-3272; V7, N1, 3397-3400; N2, pp. 3535-3538.
- Number 10, V7, N3, pp. 3691-3694; N4, 3797-3800; V8, N1, 3939-3945.
- Number 11, V8, N2, pp. 4041-4044.
- Number 12, V8, N3, pp. 4129-4134; N4, pp. 4229-4232; V9, N1, pp. 4331-4335.
- Number 13, V9, N2, pp. 4407-4412; N3, pp. 4533-4539.
- Number 14, V9, N4, pp. 4637-4640; V10, N1, 4745-4749; N2, pp. 4849-4852.
- Number 15, V10, N3, pp. 4941-4945; N4, pp. ?; V11, N1, pp. 5093-5097
- Number 16, V11; N2, pp. 5189-5193
- Number 17, V11, N3, pp. ?; N4, pp. 5373-5377
- Number 18, V12, N2, pp. 5581-5584
Ref: "A Theory of Light Propagation," Speculations in Science and Technology, V2, N3, pp. 285-302, 341-349 (1979).
Epilogue from Milnes, pp. 341-349