For some 100 years physics has modelled space and time via the spacetime concept, with space being merely an observer dependent perspective effect of that spacetime - space itself had no observer independent existence - it had no ontological status, and it certainly had no dynamical description. In recent years this has all changed. In 2002 it was discovered that a dynamical 3-space had been detected many times, including the Michelson-Morley 1887 light-speed anisotropy experiment. Here we review the dynamics of this 3-space, tracing its evolution from that of an emergent phenomena in the information-theoretic Process Physics to the phenomenological description in terms of a velocity field describing the relative internal motion of the structured 3-space. The new physics of the dynamical 3-space is extensively tested against experimental and astronomical observations, including the necessary generalisation of the Maxwell, Schr?odinger and Dirac equations, leading to a derivation and explanation of gravity as a refraction effect of the quantum matter waves. Phenomena now explainable include the bore hole anomaly, the systematics of black hole masses, the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, and the supernova and gamma-ray bursts magnitude-redshift data, for the dynamical 3-space possesses a Hubble expanding 3-space solution. Most importantly none of these phenomena now require dark matter nor dark energy. The flat and curved spacetime formalism is derived from the new physics, so explaining the apparent many successes of those formalisms, but which have now proven to be ontologically and experimentally flawed.
Doppler shift observations of spacecraft, such as Galileo, NEAR, Cassini, Rosetta and MESSENGER in earth flybys, have all revealed unexplained speed ?anomalies? - that the Doppler-shift determined speeds are inconsistent with expected speeds. Here it is shown that these speed anomalies are not real and are actually the result of using an incorrect relationship between the observed Doppler shift and the speed of the spacecraft - a relationship based on the assumption that the speed of light is isotropic in all frames, viz invariant. Taking account of the repeatedly measured light-speed anisotropy the anomalies are resolved ab initio. The Pioneer 10/11 anomalies are discussed, but not resolved. The spacecraft observations demonstrate again that the speed of light is not invariant, and is isotropic only with respect to a dynamical 3-space. The existing Doppler shift data also o ers a resource to characterise a new form of gravitational waves, the dynamical 3-space turbulence, that has also been detected by other techniques. The Einstein spacetime formalism uses a special definition of space and time coordinates that mandates light speed invariance for all observers, but which is easily misunderstood and misapplied.
Physics textbooks assert that in the famous 1887 interferometer experiment to detect absolute motion Michelson and Morley saw no rotation-induced fringe shifts; it was a null experiment. However this is incorrect. Their published data revealed to them the expected fringe shifts, but that data gave a speed of some 8km/s using a Newtonian theory for the operation of the interferometer, and so was rejected by them solely because it was less than the 30km/s orbital speed of the earth. A 2002 post relativistic-effects analysis for the operation of this device however gives a speed > 300km/s. So this experiment detected both absolute motion and the breakdown of Newtonian physics. So far another six experiments, four using a Michelson interferometer in gas-mode and two coaxial cable 1st order v/c experiments, have confirmed this first detection of absolute motion in 1887. These experiments imply that the 1905 Einstein pos-tulate for the observer-invariance of the speed of light is invalid, and that the spacetime ontology is experimentally falsified. A new first order experiment is being constructed here in 2005 to measure with greater accuracy not only the velocity of absolute motion, but also to study the wave phenomena already seen in earlier experiments.
Gravitational anomalies such as the mine/borehole g anomaly, the near-flatness of the spiral galaxy rotationvelocity curves, currently interpreted as the "dark matter" effect, the absence of that effect in ordinary elliptical galaxies, and the ongoing problems in accurately determining Newton"s gravitational constant GN are explained by a generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity to a fluid-flow formalism with one new dimensionless constant. By analysing the borehole data this new constant is shown to be the fine structure constant 1/137. The spiral galaxy rotation curve effect and the globular cluster central "black hole" masses for M15 and G1 are then correctly predicted.
The new information-theoretic Process Physics provides an explanation of space as a quantum foam system in which gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of the quantum foam into matter. Here an analysis of date from seven experiments demonstrates that absolute motion relative to space has been observed by Michelson and Morley (1887), Miller (1925/26), Illingworth (1927), Joos (1930), Jaseja et al (1963), Torr and Kolen (1981), and by DeWitte (1991). The Dayton Miller data also reveals the in-flow of space into the sun. The data reveals a new form of gravitational waves, predicted by the new theory of gravity in the accompanying paper "Gravity as Quantum Foam In-Flow".
Newtonian Gravity and General Relativity are plagued by gravitational anomalies - phenomena not accounted for by either theory. It is shown that both may be re-written in a "fluid in-flow" formalism, but that a simple generalisation of this formalism leads to a new theory of gravity that resolves the anomalies. In the accompanying paper "Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects" various experimental observations of absolute motion and of the in-flow into the sun are analysed. The in-flow displays gravitational waves, and these are manifest in experimental data. Newtonian gravity is flawed, and the flaw was "inherited" by General Relativity.
A new information-theoretic physics has given rise to a quantum-foam description of space relative to which absolute motion is meaningful and measurable. In this new physics Michelson interferometers operating in gas mode are capable of revealing absolute motion. We analyse the old results from gas-mode Michelson interferometer experiments which always showed small but significant effects. Analysis of the Illingworth (1927) experimental data, after correcting for the refractive index effect of the helium used, reveals an absolute speed of the Earth of v = 369 ? 123 km/s, while the Miller experiment (1933), after correcting for the refractive index effect of the air, now gives a speed of v = 335 ? 57 km/s, which are in agreement with the speed of v = 365 ? 18 km/s determined from the dipole fit, in 1991, to the NASA COBE satellite Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) observations. The new physics also implies that vacuum interferometers will give null results, as has been observed many times. These experimental results imply that absolute motion is observable and that there is a preferred foliation of spacetime coinciding with the CBR frame.