It is shown that the laser gyro is a reasonable device quite different from the Sagnac experiment. A laser speedometer whose light paths enclose no area can be used to test the Special Theory of Relativity. Correspondence V2, N4, p. 77
The paper discusses lunar and stellar aberration, and the absence of aberration in terrestrial sources, based on a space medium of separate ethers in which a Galilean electrodynamic theory is valid.
It is postulated that a nonmechanical medium (or ether) exists in space. It is assumed to be the summation of all of the electric and magnetic fields established in any region of space produced by all the elementary charges and magnets in the universe. It is shown how this medium accounts for electromagnetic propagation. The speed of light c is fixed relative to this medium in space in agreement with de Sitter?s binary stars and Bradley?s stellar aberration. It explains Stoke?s "ether drag" near planets in agreement with the Michelson-Morley null result. It is also postulated that the medium provides a mechanism for the inertial reaction specified by Newton?s second and third laws.
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In this article a new classical model of the electron is presented. Two matters especially are considered. The first is the stability of the electron. Although this elementary particle is one of the most fundamental constituents of the universe, the theory of electrodynamics predicts that it should explode unless there exist additional forces holding it together. Here such a binding force is investigated; and an incidental outcome of the inquiry is the removal of a discrepant factor, such as 4/3, which has long plagued theories of the electron. The other matter is the increase of mass with velocity which is seen here as being due to an altering of the electric, magnetic, and binding energy fields, the magnetic field being generated by the motion.
Einstein's primary aim in physics was to develop a unified field theory. It is now eighty years since Einstein introduced relativity. Modern physics still has no unified field theory. This paper shows problems with relativity and quantum theory. It proposes novel adaptations of classical physics as a means of achieving a unification of physics. The four basic types of forces in modern physics are reduced to only one kind of force, the electromagnetic force.
All bodies ar assumed to consist of electric charges. The inertial reaction force acting backwards on an accelerated body is shown to be a magnetically induced electric force acting on the charges. Inertial mass is then associated with that reaction force and acceleration in accordance with Newton's second and third laws. This deduction is considered to have potential in a possible reinterpretation of the foundations of modern physics.
Independent positive and negative partial fields of equal value are assumed to be associated with every source mass. These complimentary electric fields behve like dormant fields with a net zero field strength except in the region of a proton or electron. A mass upon which these fields are impressed contains an equal number of protons and electrons. Even a neutron is assumed to contain a proton and electron. The impressed partial fields exert a combination of attraction and repulsion on protons and electrons embedded in that mass. A nonlinearity in the region of each of those charges tilts the balance such that the net electric force is one of attraction that meets the conditions of a gravitation force. The theory is then extended to include additional properties of the dormant field, such as a "medium" to take the place of Maxwell's luminiferous ether and a feedback medium in electrodynamics. This unification of electromagnetic theory and gravitation also includes gravitational radiation.
The experimental and theoretical work of Herbert Ives is presented as a logical alternative to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Rotational experiments are shown to indicate a light-beating medium, refuting thefoundations of special relativity. The relativity concept of time dilation is replaced by physically produced clock rate reduction when clocks move through the reference medium. The common sense concept of time is upheld as a fundamental quantity of science. The philosophy of relativism is shown to be detrimental to science.
Measurements by the NASA's Magsat satellite, between October 1979 and June 1980, corroborate the conclusion which had already been reached: that the Earth's magnetic field is decreasing-not oscillating, but decreasing monotonically and exponentially. In this article the evidence for a young Earth which such a decay provides is considered; also the question, what will happen if the present decay continues.
This article extends the concepts developed in previous papers, alternatives to special theory of relativity, to generate magnetic forces of sufficient magnitude to replace the conventional concepts of the strong forces in nuclear physics.
The proton model consists of a spinning sphere of extremely small radius and extremely high perimeter speed, speed exceeding the speed of light. This speed is shown to be permissible in a sphere with constant rate of rotation. The result is a large magnetic flux and an intense magnetic field. This field provides binding force attraction between protons.
The proton magnetic flux induces a spin in an electron deforming the electron into a rotating ring. The rotating electron ring encircles the spinning proton to form a neutron. The magnetic force keeps the plus and minus charge apart.
This paper makes use of published values of spin angular momentum, magnetic moments, and beta decay energy. It also uses the classical laws of conservation of angular momentum and energy and the equivalence of mass and energy.
In this article work begun in a previous one, Reference 20, is continued. Two matters especially are considered. One is the increase of mass of charged elementary particles moving at high speeds. Special relativity includes this increase, but offers no physical explanation; it is hard to see how arguments about observers can explain what happens when no observers are present. Here the increase of inertia is seen to be due to the magnetic field generated by the motion. The other mater is the stability of elementary particles such as electrons. These particles are basic to electrodynamics; but electrodynamics predicts that the particles would explode, unless there be additional forces to bind them together. Here such a binding force is investigated; and an incidental outcome of the investigation is the removal of a discrepant factor, such as 4/3, which has long plagued theories of the electron.
Electrostatics, the study of the effects of stationary electric charges, is well established. Electrodynamics, the study of what happens when the charges are moving, has not been free from difficulties. The special theory of relativity is commonly supposed to be used to bridge the gap between the static and dynamic situations. However, that theory involves some notions, such as the contraction of lengths and the dilation of times, which are not well established experimentally. Moreover, it leads to some seemingly absurd results such as the notorious twin paradox.
In the present article, the authors use the idea of feedback, in which changing electrical fields cause magnetic effects and vice versa. These facts have been established experimentally for a long time. In that way a theory of what happens with moving charges is established. The results agree with those from the previous theory; but they are obtained in a way which seems physically more meaningful, and which does not require one to assume effects for which there is no experimental evidence.
The second of Einstein's two relativity theories, his general theory of relativity, is a theory of Gravitation. Its wide acceptance and his original fame may be attributed largely to the presumed verification of predictions that he made relative to three effects in astronomy. Now, however, it turns out that all three of these effects should have been expected from other considerations; they can be shown to follow from more conventional physical analyses without the need for his theory and its rather drastic "nonphysical" concepts. A theory of gravitation is developed in this paper that follows the same analytical form as that which has proved to be so successful in electric theory, namely the form of Maxwell's four field equations in his electromagnetic theory of light. This theory yields all of the applications known from Newton's theory of gravitation plus the "expected" dynamical effects of gravitational waves and radiation, minute effects that Newton failed to provide for. If this new theory of gravitation is accepted, it will greatly alter the foundations of modern cosmology. Although the predicted gravitational radiation effects have the same order of magnitude as Einstein's, there is enough difference in value that if these effects are ever measured with sufficient accuracy this theory may be the "winner" This theory has not yet been completely explored; but it appears to be a satisfying alternative to Einstein's general theory of relativity; with much greater physical plausibility.
In previous papers the author applied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and 130 years of real-time data to a proposed model of the earth's main magnet. The magnetic field was shown to be decaying exponentially with a half-life of only 1,400 years. This fact puts a severe limitation on the age of the earth. The present value of the power loss from the magnet was evaluated at 813 megawatts. This new paper employs those results to compute the total energy which will be lost during the remaining life of the magnet. Because there is no other source of energy, this is an indirect means of computing the total amount of energy in the earth's present magnetic field. If this theory is valid, an overall check can now be made on the theory by getting an independent evaluation of the total energy in the magnetic field of an idealized "equivalent" magnet. This equivalent magnet, being permanent, does not involve the decay, conductivity, heat loss, etc., associated with the computation about the real magnet. Such a check has been achieved in this paper. This provides an unyielding veriftation of the decay properties of the earths field, and of the implications of these facts for the age of the earth.