The GPS system along with other experimental evidence is used to refute the equivalence principle. The paper is divided into three major parts followed at the end by a short section which deals with a look at some as yet unexplained experimental data.
The first major section looks at the equivalence principle in the light of ?falling? electromagnetic radiation. In this first section the equivalence principle is defined and the arguments of Einstein, Feynman and Clifford Will are presented. Each of the arguments is refuted and the GPS evidence plays a significant role in that refutation. The section is closed with a strange quote from the ?GPS Bible? regarding the equivalence principle. This quote is followed by a transitional argument to the next section using two clocks, fore and aft, in an accelerating rocket.
The second major section deals with the relationship of the equivalence principle to infinitesimal Lorentz Transformations (ILTs). Goldstein, Meisner Thorne and Wheeler, Muller, and Ashby and Spilker are quoted in support of ILTs. Goy provides a valid alternative to the ILTs. The difference between ILTs and the ?clock hypothesis? of Goy is explored. Evidence from multiple sources (including GPS) is cited in support of the clock hypothesis. This evidence contradicts ILTs. The section is closed with the suggestion for a fairly simple experiment which could remove any doubt as to the validity (or lack thereof) of the ILTs.
The third major section returns to the ?falling? electromagnetic radiation concept and looks at some of the huge implications which can be derived from the failure of the strong and weak equivalence principles. After exploring some of those implications, alternative apparent equivalences are proposed which are consistent with the evidence.
The paper concludes with a brief look at some experimental evidence which has not yet been explained in a manner consistent with main stream physics theories. Suggested solutions to the anomalous data are provided.
Evidence is presented to show that infinitesimal Lorentz transformations (ILTs) contradict the ?clock hypothesis? that acceleration affects the clock rate only indirectly through the resultant velocity. But the clock hypothesis has substantial supporting experimental evidence. It is also shown that the equivalence principle, upon which the general relativity is based, depends on the validity of ILTs. In addition, a fairly simple M?ssbauer experiment on the International Space Station is suggested, which would clearly indicate whether or not the ILTs are valid. However, it is also shown that a careful consideration of clocks on the earth already provides equivalent experimental data, which indicates that ILTs are invalid.
Recent claims that ether drag is compatible with stellar aberration are falsified using independent ex-perimental data regarding clock behavior. There is substantial evidence that clock velocity and clock position in a gravitational potential affect the clock readings by causing biases in clocks that are separated in a moving frame. These clock biases cause the apparent speed of light in the frame to be isotropic and equal to c even though the true speed of light is not affected by the motion and is anisotropic relative to the moving frame. These clock biases are verified by comparison with millisecond pulsars. Thus alternative explanations for the isotropy of the speed of light, such as Special Relativity Theory (SRT) or ether drag, are thereby falsified.
A gedanken experiment is described that exposes an apparent conflict between the treatment of proper timekeeping on geodesics according to general relativity theory, as customarily understood, and empirical evidence such as that of the Global Positioning System. The paradox is resolved by noting that there may be many geodesics between two spacetime events, only one of which represents a global maximum of proper time. The cardinality of such nonuniqueness (which may be that of the continuum) at first seems to violate the property that a geodesic between two events always incurs a (local) extremum of proper time. However, to first order (hence to observationally significant order), all free-fall orbits that have the same period have the same proper time, so no first variations of the orbits within our solution set change the proper time?a consistency check on the geodesic (extremum) interpretation of such orbits.
A new technique for ambiguity resolution at long distances is described. It uses the code and carrier measurements on three frequencies in an unusual way. Specifically, it uses an averaging method to arrive at an accurate ambiguity-resolved and refraction-corrected measurement that largely overcomes the disadvantage of the close spacing between the L2 and the L5 frequencies. Of course, it works better when the second and third frequencies are farther apart, such as the Galileo L5 and E6 frequencies. The technique is unique in that there is no requirement to resolve the ambiguities of the fundamental L1, L2 and L5 carrier phase measurements. Instead a wide-lane, but noisy, refraction-corrected carrier phase measurement is formed from two of the three widelane carrier phase differences formed from the difference of pairs of the fundamental phase measurements. These differences are ambiguity resolved using ionosphericmatching code measurements and are then combined into a refraction-corrected composite measurement. While this wide-lane composite is quite noisy, it can be smoothed with a refraction-corrected, composite measurement with much lower noise.
The ambiguities of this low-noise composite measurement are not required since it is simply used to smooth the noise in the wide-lane refraction-corrected composite. By not requiring the stepping from one ambiguity-resolved carrier phase measurement to another, it is largely immune to clock differences at the different frequencies which can sabotage the stepped approach. In addition, because the initial ambiguity resolution is done with wide-lane combinations, the reliability of the ambiguity resolution is robust and relatively insensitive to the presence of small code-carrier biases.
The geometry-free approach of individually resolving the ambiguities removes the tropospheric refraction from the ambiguity resolution problem. Thus, the final smoothed, refraction-corrected composite measurement is insensitive to both ionospheric and tropospheric refraction effects. Though the smoothing process may require some minutes to reach the optimal accuracy level, the result should significantly extend the ranges over which RTK results can be obtained without requiring the modeling of the ionosphere.
A fallacy in the equivalence between acceleration and gravity effects is revealed. This fallacy undermines the general relativity theory (GRT), which is based upon that equivalence. It is shown that the real equivalence in local physical phenomena is between the effects of gravitational potential energy and those of kinetic energy. Using this new equivalence, a new theory of gravity is logically developed from known experimental results. This new gravity theory implies an absolute ether and, when embedded within a modified Lorentz ether theory, also satisfies the experiments usually explained by the special relativity theory. It is shown that the new theory satisfies all the classical tests satisfied by GRT. In addition, a number of previously unexplained physical phenomena are potentially explained by the new theory. Finally, a spacecraft test of the new theory is suggested.
GPS Solutions 8:67-73.
Both VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) and GPS (Global Positioning System) indicate that earth-based clocks are biased as a function of their position in the direction of the earth?s orbital velocity. The evidence for these biases is discussed, and the result is confirmed by comparison of earth-based clocks with millisecond pulsars. These clock biases are precisely such as to cause the speed of light to appear as ??c?? in the earth?s inertial frame. This shows that the speed of light is not isotropic in the earth?s frame and that the Lorentz transformation is only an apparent transformation that results from Selleri?s inertial transformations combined with clock biases.
Proceedings of the ION 58th Annual Meeting & CIGTF Guidance Test Symposium, Albuquerque, NM, June 24-26, 2002, pp 70-81.
The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and the General Relativity Theory (GRT) sometimes exhibit clock effects of equal magnitude which cancel and sometimes exhibit clock effects of equal magnitude which are additive. This cannot be coincidence, yet there is nothing within the two disjoint relativity theories to suggest an underlying mechanism. The effects appear to be related to energy, but the SRT treats energy as relative and the GRT treats an orbiting body as following a force-free trajectory. Thus an alternative to the Einstein theories seems to be required. I have proposed what I call a Modified Lorentz Ether Theory (MLET) which extends the Lorentz ether concepts to cover gravitational phenomena. Following a brief review of MLET concepts, it is contrasted with SRT concepts. Current data available from a number of modern experiments are evaluated with regard to both MLET and SRT. In general, MLET provides a more coherent and consistent explanation of the data. In the principal section of the paper it is shown that in the earth-centered inertial (ECI) frame Global Positioning System (GPS) clocks must not be adjusted for the gradient of the sun's gravitational potential. MLET shows that the differential effect of the sun's gravitational potential is absorbed into the clock bias which converts the Selleri transformation into an apparent Lorentz transformation. By contrast, there is no valid explanation for this phenomenon which is consistent with SRT/GRT and they are thereby refuted. This is very strong evidence that some form of Lorentz ether theory is valid and that Einstein's relativity theories are invalid.
Proceedings of the ION 58th Annual Meeting & CIGTF 21st Guidance Test Symposium, 24-26 June 2002, pp 495-505. Contrary to the assertion of Special Relativity, the speed of light is not always constant relative to a moving observer. The Global Positioning System (GPS) shows that the speed of light in the Earth Centered Inertial (ECI) non-rotating frame remains at c relative to the frame?but not relative to an observer or receiver moving in that frame. When a GPS receiver changes its translation speed relative to the ECI frame, the speed of light measured relative to the receiver changes. A crucial experiment of the constancy of the speed of light relative to a moving receiver could be conducted in the following way: Let two GPS satellites and two airplanes be positioned in a straight line. Let the two airplanes travel at the same speed directly toward one of the two satellites and directly away from the other satellite. The travel time differences of GPS signals arriving at the two airplanes is measured and recorded with the airplanes flying first toward one of the satellites and then flying the opposite direction toward the other satellite. The travel time differences obtained as the airplanes fly in opposite directions are compared. If the travel time difference is the same when the velocity of the airplanes is changed, then the speed of light is indeed constant relative to the moving airplanes, otherwise it is not. The calculation using the GPS range equation and the results of a Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) differential GPS test have shown that the constancy of the speed of light relative to moving airplanes is not correct. The change of the time difference could reach about 10 ns for subsonic airplanes and 30 ns for supersonic airplanes. The result of this crucial experiment is not only important scientifically, but also indicates the possibility of a new way to directly measure vehicle speed relative to the ECI frame.
Special relativity theory (SRT) claims equivalence of all inertial frames, but it is generally acknowledged that there exists a dipole temperature distribution in the cosmic background radiation (CBR), which indicates that the solar system is moving through this unique inertial frame at a speed of approximately one percent of the speed of light. This evidence for a unique frame conflicts with SRT, and so motivates a search for additional evidence. Presumably, any ether drift should be directly detectable via experiment in either an Earth-centered frame, or a Sun-centered frame, or both. Spinning M?ssbauer experiments, the Global Positioning System (GPS), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are here analyzed for any evidence of ether drift; i.e., for evidence that the speed of light is not isotropic in all inertial frames. Though none of the experiments provides any direct evidence of ether drift, they do provide substantial indirect evidence.
- Basics of GPS
- Measurement problems and their mitigation
- Differential Techniques
- Ambiguity Resolution
- Geometry independent?in measurement space
- Geometry dependent
- In position space
- In ambiguity space
- Third frequency
aka "Implication of Mass Increase From GPS"
The author has developed a "Modified Lorentzian Ether Theory" (MLET). which he has also referred to as an "Ether Gauge Theory" (BGT). A brief logical development of MLET is presented, with each step in the development constrained by experiment. MLET provides a logical and easily understood alternative to both the "Special Relativity Theory" (SRT) and the "General Relativity Theory" (GRT). The new theory is particularly significant for its description of a simple mechanism for both the gravitational force and for inertia. Once the theory is developed, experiments either in work or newly suggested are described which should either support or refute the new theory.
The frequency of an atomic clock is driven by the energy difference between excited states of an atom. Since the frequency of an atomic clock is a function of the gravitational potential, the energy difference must likewise be a function of the gravitational potential. Thus, the Pound-Rebka experiment rather than showing that a falling photon picked up energy, simply showed a higher frequency by comparison to a lower reference frequency. The frequency (energy) of a falling photon is unchanged. This shows that the General Theory of Relativity is wrong?gravity does not act on all forms of energy. This revision of gravitational effects is explored. Significant implications arise and potential explanations for significant ongoing problems in cosmology are developed.
A number of modem physicists have espoused some form of absolute ether theory. But any such theory must explain a number of experiments via dynamic forces in place of the SRT kinematic explanation. This paper attempts to resolve a number of these experimental issues and to provide a coherent explanation of the apparent relativity which results. The specific stimulus for this paper was provided by Sherwin's experiment which attempted to detect directly the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction. However, the Sherwin experiment is generalized herein to thought experiments involving gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. The appropriate force equations are explored for a mass particle in a gravitational orbit and for a charged particle in an electrostatic orbit. For apparent relativity to hold while angular momentum and energy are conserved puts very specific and precise limits on the form of the force equations. Ironically, the electromagnetic Lorentz force does not meet the requirements. Neither does the Ampere force law. Only the Gauss-Riemann-Whittaker force law has the appropriate functional dependence.
Einstein chose the absolute equivalence (i.e. symmetry) of all inertial frames, with its associated non-simultaneity, over the choice of a single absolute frame with time simultaneity. Lorentz and Poincar? were not willing to make that same positivistic choice. Acknowledging his debt to Mach, Einstein made his choice because he ?found that no measurement could provide a criterion for simultaneity that would give the same result for all observers.? Using positivistic logic, i.e. absence of proof is proof of absence, Einstein chose the absolute equivalence of all inertial frames over the Lorentz and Poincar? choice of an absolute frame. Many have justified Einstein's choice by saying that the difference is only metaphysical. But, in fact, the choice has experimental and causal implications. In this paper we explore a range of experimental phenomena which favor the alternate choice.
An elastic ether model of gravitational effects is proposed, and the more significant differences between the new theory and the General Theory are explored. When compared with Einstein?s curved-space model, the majority of the equations are little changed, but there are a number of real differences. The complexity of interpretation for the General Theory contrasts with the simplicity of the new gravitational model. Some of the predicted effects differ too. In a series of logical steps a new gravitational force equation is developed. It is shown that many of the cosmological implications of the General Theory are critically dependent upon the sign of the second-order term of the Taylor series expansion of the gravitational scale factor. The existing observational evidence supports the opposite sign of the second-order term, and hence the new gravitational force equation.
Two different values for the speed of light have been derived in prior issues of Galilean Electrodynamics, using the conservation of energy. It is shown that the conservation of energy simply defines a relationship between the gravitational dependence of the speed of light and the gravitational dependence of mass. Thus, when one uses the conservation of energy to determine the gravitational dependence of the speed of light, one must presuppose either explicitly or implicitly the dependence of mass on gravitational potential. The author uses the Shapito radar time delay to define the dependence of the speed of light on gravitational potential. The conservation of energy can then be used to define the dependence of mass on gravitational potential. The implications of the development are explored. From the development, it is clear that conservation of momentum predicts a result for Gravity Probe B which is different from that predicted by the general theory of relativity.
Chalmers W. Sherwin conducted an experiment which he reported in Physical Review A, Vol. 35, No.9, May 1987. The experiment-was ingeniously designed to detect the Lorentzian stress induced by the Fitzgerald contraction of macroscopic matter moving at a velocity, v. Briefly, an accelerometer was spun on the end of a spring. If Fitzgerald contraction was real, Shenvin expected the accelerometer to display a signal at twice the rotation frequency, due to the galactic velocity of the solar system.
The author's proposed modified Lorentz ether is described, including the increase of mass with velocity through the ether. Next, it is shown that the fault with Shenvin's expected results was, in fact, that he ignored the increase of mass withvelocity.lt is shown that the increase of mass, together with conservation of momentum, causes an elliptic orbit about the center flattened precisely in agreement with the Fitzgerald contraction. Thus, Shenvin's null result says: If the increase of mass with velocity is real, Fitzgerald contraction is real.
In the first paper we showed that the global positioning system (GPS) strongly supports the Lorentz ether theory over that of Einstein's special theory. In this second paper, we take a close look at several problems with the general theory. In the second paper, we take a close look at several problems with the special theory. Particular attention is focused on the claim of the general theory that an object in free-fall is not acted upon by any forces and, hence, defines its own Lorentz frame. One aspect of this claim can be refuted by the new GPS satellites which are capable of inter-satellite tracking. A modification of the Lorentz ether theory is proposed which resolves the general theory problems. In addition, the new theory predicts experimental results at variance with the general theory for several experiments to be performed in the near future.
The satellites of the global positioning system (GPS) travel around the earth in 12-hour periods in near-circular orbits. All of the satellites contain extremely precise atomic clocks whose rates depend both upon satellite velocity and altitude. An observer bound to the earth, in an airplane or in a satellite may determine his precise location by obtaining signals from several satellites simultaneously. This paper discusses the implications of GPS on Einstein's special theory of relativity. A subsequent paper will discuss the general theory.
Spinning Mossbauer experiments, with gamma ray source and detector on a spinning disk, are frequently cited as providing strong evidence in support of the special theory. However, as Hayden has shown, the claims are generally based upon two separate phenomena. Ruderfer suggested that one could detect the variation of the transit time across either the radius or diameter of the spinning disk if an ether wind were present. Turner and Hill looked for a change in the frequency of the gamma rays as a function of the source velocity. If an ether wind were present, then a modulation of the frequency with the spin would presumably appear. Ruderfer, in an erratum, pointed out that the two effects would cancel and render the experiment incapable of detecting an ether wind. In spite of this erratum, the claims are repeatedly found in the literature that the spinning Mossbauer experiments support the special theory. They do not. They are simply moot on the subject.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) constitutes a large scale near-equivalent to the spinning Mossbauer experiments. The transit time between the satellite and ground-based receivers is routinely measured. In addition, the atomic clocks on the satellite are carefully monitored; and high precision corrections are provided as part of the information transmitted from the satellites. Because the satellites and the receivers rotate at different rates (unlike the Mossbauer experiments), a correction for the motion of the receiver during the transit time is required. This correction is generally referred to as a Sagnac correction, since it adjusts for an anisotropy of the speed of light as far as the receiver is concerned. Why is there no requirement for a Sagnac correction due to the earth's orbital motion? Like the transit time in the spinning Mossbauer experiments, any such effect would be completely canceled by the orbital velocity.
The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) experiments extend the phonomena of interest to aberration effects as well as the Sagnac effect.