No actions can be performed at a distance through empty space. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate (apparent) physical actions between material bodies at a distance. Aether, used in aether-theories and other imaginary entities currently used to explain various physical phenomena are too vague and fails to describe many physical actions of matter bodies, logically. By realising a real entity that fills the entire space as an all-encompassing universal medium, the formless space can be replaced with a structured real entity. An ideal universal medium should be a real entity with positive existence and with all properties currently assigned to space or to other imaginary entities like; different types of aether, imaginary particles or various types of fields.
An all-encompassing universal medium, made of ?real? matter particles, fills entire space outside ?basic 3D matter particles?. It is homogeneous, isotropic and self-stabilizing multiple-entity. Because of its inherent compression, it squeezes all ?basic 3D matter particles? by direct contact. This all-around push action on 3D matter by universal medium is ?gravitation?. Strength of gravitation is proportional to the extent of universal medium, away from the point of action. Extent of universal medium on outer sides of two basic 3D matter particles is always more (with correspondingly higher gravitation) than the extent of universal medium in between them (with correspondingly lower gravitation). Greater pushes from outer sides and lower pushes from in between, compel basic 3D matter particles to move towards each other. Cause of this motion appears as ?attraction? between the basic 3D matter particles. This phenomenon is interpreted as ?gravitational attraction? between them. ?Gravitational attraction? is a minor by-product of separate gravitational push-actions on each of the basic 3D matter particles. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is the resultant of gravitational attractions between their constituent basic 3D matter particles. It is the differences in extents of universal medium on either side of constituent basic 3D matter particles that produce gravitational attraction between two macro bodies, rather than shadow-effects on each other.
Physical parameters of stable galaxies produce sufficient repulsion to overcome gravitational attraction between them . However, those very large gatherings of 3D matter bodies and debris in space, which do not develop into stable galaxies (or which constitute central parts of stable galaxies, with lower centrifugal actions) succumb to gravitational attraction between constituent matter bodies and form very large single macro bodies of very high matter-density. Huge size and very large matter content of these macro bodies give them certain logical properties, one of which is to reduce/prevent outward radiation (of light) from the zone of their existence, to reach outside observers. This phenomenon makes them invisible and hence the name, ?Black Hole?. This article briefly describes their development, properties and their role in maintaining a ?steady state? of universe, as envisaged in ?Hypothesis on MATTER?.
Lack of fundamental set of assumptions in physics encourages or often compels physicists to conceive different sets of assumptions (often unrelated) for different phenomena. When taken together they often contradict each other. Because of numerous contemporary assumptions, physics is no more an exact science. This affair can be remedied only by sorting existing assumptions out and tabulating one basic set of fundamental assumptions, on which explanations to every physical phenomenon should depend. If any assumption in physics is ripe for re-thinking, I will suggest ?actions at a distance through empty space? as the first candidate.
All real entities are made of matter. Existence of matter is the solitary phenomenon without prior cause. Therefore, original set of assumptions should be only with respect to matter. Further development of physics, in all spheres, should be based on these original set of assumptions. To add to or modify original assumptions, whenever certain phenomenon is not readily explainable, is incorrect practise. Multitude of assumptions, currently used in physics, may be substituted by a single and basic assumption that ?Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all physical entities?. Although conclusions may diverge from current beliefs, reasoning based on this single fundamental assumption can logically explain all physical phenomena.
Free macro bodies have a natural tendency to gradually reshape themselves to perfect spheres in three dimensional space. Sub-structured macro bodies tend to increase their existence into most number of spatial dimensions. This is the result of (apparent) interactions between its constituent matter particles. Contrary to this tendency of macro bodies, pure (unstructured) matter particles tend to reduce their existence into minimum number of spatial dimensions. This contradictory behaviour of matter (in its pure state and in sub-structured state) can be shown as the basis of all physical phenomena in nature, including creation, sustenance, (apparent) interactions and eventual destruction of macro bodies.
By simple mechanics, it is impossible for a free body to orbit around another moving body, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, while considering two body problems, relative parameters of bodies are considered with one of them steady in space. This simple method of mathematical analysis can give accurate prediction of their future relative parameters. Orbital path of a planetary body appears around its static central body. Circular/elliptical orbits around a static central body, being an imaginary figure, has no value other than to indicate relative positions of concerned bodies. All macro bodies, in nature, are moving. In cases of moving central bodies (real situations) or when there are more than two bodies in a system, relative considerations cannot describe their orbital paths. Due to phenomenal success of solution to two body problem by relative considerations, a firm but erroneous belief has established that all planetary bodies move around their central bodies. Adamant belief in imaginary circular/elliptical orbital path is carried forward to three body system to create an imaginary and unsolvable problem. Three body problem (as considered today with respect to planetary motions) is unsolvable because real and imaginary situations are mixed in it. It is nothing but a deception from reality, adopted to create a baseless mystery.
Light is a flow of basic three-dimensional matter corpuscles, accompanied by work (electromagnetic energy) radiation. A corpuscle of light is a basic 3D matter particle, called photon. Matter-part of light corpuscle and its accompanying energy-part, together, constitute a photon. They support each other for sustenance and stability of the photon. Matter-core of a photon is a disc-shaped body, spinning about one of its diameters. Electromagnetic wave-like entity, about a photon's matter core-body, is work in the form of distortions in universal medium. Two-dimensional energy fields, constituted by latticework structures by quanta of matter, fill entire space outside basic 3D matter particle to form an all-encompassing universal medium. Region of universal medium, around photon's core-body that contains sufficient distortions to sustain integrity and state of a photon's core-body is its inertial pocket. At every instant, matter-core of a photon is ejected out of 2D energy fields of its existence at highest (constant) linear speed, by gravitational actions. Linear and spin speeds of a photon are limited by the ability of 2D energy fields to allow photon's passage, without breaking down themselves. Attempt to change linear speed of a photon changes its matter content (frequency) rather than its linear speed. Linear speed of light near a large macro body is a critical constant with respect to matter field of that body. Light, being stream of corpuscles of matter, obeys all laws of motion irrespective of its direction of radiation. Linear speed of light is not a universal constant; depending on the nature of universal medium, it varies from region to region in space.
Currently, analyses of ?Brownian motion? are limited to its relevance to other scientific phenomena. Observed motion of a microscopic solid particle, suspended in a liquid, is attributed to assumed random motion of liquid molecules. This type of motion remains one of many assumptions of ?kinetic theory?. There is neither a logical cause nor a mechanism nor a known mover, acting on liquid molecules. Hence, root cause of Brownian motion remains a mystery. Aim of this article is to explain a logical mechanism for random motion of molecules (which causes Brownian motion) of liquid macro body, based on structural behaviour of its matter-particles, rather than to analyse observed motion and its significance to other phenomena.
In free space (where a macro body experience no external influence related to other macro bodies), least dense matter-particles in a fluid macro body, settle at its centre and the macro body itself becomes spherical in shape. External pressure on a macro body reduces its size and thereby increases its matter-density and internal pressure. Internal pressure, within a macro body, acts as external pressure on its constituent primary matter-particles. Enhancement of external pressure on primary matter-particles enlarges their sizes and reduces their matter (and energy) content levels to lower their matter-density, as it happens during heating.
In a fluid macro body, situated near a massive macro body, reduction of matter-density of its constituent primary matter-particles (corresponding to their location within the macro body) tends to produce convection current. This is the root cause of ?Brownian movement? of suspended microscopic solid particles in the fluid macro body. If no massive macro body is near the fluid macro body, there will be no Brownian movements in it. Phenomenon of Brownian motion takes place only on or near the surface of earth-like celestial macro bodies.
Two equal volumes of water, one slightly warmer than the other, when placed in similar external conditions to freeze, warmer water is noticed to freeze before the other. This phenomenon (Mpemba effect) is the result of difference in the rate of inter-atomic movements during cooling stages of macro bodies with different initial temperatures.
?Flyby anomaly' is a significant but unaccounted apparent increase or reduction in the velocity of a spacecraft during Earth-flybys. These phenomena could not be explained by current physical laws. This article attempts to show that the noticed discrepancies are apparent and they are produced by faulty geometry used in contemporary laws of planetary motion. In reality, the spacecrafts and external efforts on them behave normally. There are no causes or actions, which vary a spacecraft's linear velocity during Earth-flybys. There is no basis for assumption of strange ?forces' or mysterious effects on or about these spacecrafts.
Linear and rotary motions of a macro body are entirely separate. Each of them is produced by separate set of work-done on a macro body. However, each matter particle of a linearly moving, rotating macro body has its own path of resultant motion. Its motion and path appear to be resultant of linear and rotary motions of the macro body. With respect to an absolute reference (about which all real actions on/about a macro body takes place) resultant motion of a constituent matter particle of a planetary body is along a wavy path in space. Since linear speed of a spinning planetary body is much greater than linear motion of its constituent matter particles due to planetary body's spin speed, every matter particle in the spinning planetary body always moves in the same direction in space. Spin motion of a planetary body is an illusion and it is valid only for considerations with respect to static reference of planetary body's spin axis. As real motion of all matter particles of a spinning planetary body (with respect to absolute reference) is always in the same linear direction, swirling motion of a planetary body's interior is a myth.
Natural association of matter particles is to form an electro-magnetically neutral body. All planetary bodies are initially electromagnetically neutral bodies. It is the acquired parameters of these bodies, which produce their magnetism. Apparent spin motion of a planetary body does not cause interior matter to swirl around its axis of spin. To consider this imaginary swirling motion of a planetary body's magma, as the cause of planetary magnetism is not tenable.
Cause and nature of planetary magnetism is described here on the basis of a radically different concept, put forward in "Hypothesis on MATTER". Planetary magnetic field is produced by directional alignment of free floating atoms in relatively calm fluids on or near the surface of a spinning planet and it is sustained by induced magnetism of the body's ferrous core. Alignment of free floating atoms and hence the strength of planetary magnetism depends on absolute linear speed of the planetary body and quantity of fluid matter on it. Planetary magnetism is created by linear speed of the planet and sustained by apparent spin motion of a planet that has ferrous matter as its core. Magnets formed about either hemisphere of a planet (about its equator) are independent of each other. Natural upheavals or gradual re-distribution of ocean water on earth, affect the strength and direction of terrestrial magnetism.
Matter is the only substance that can provide objective existence in space and physical reality to an entity. All real entities are made of matter. Due to lack of a reference, we have no measuring scale to determine matter content of a real object. We had been using one of the attributes of matter, mass, to represent matter content of real objects. Mass, used for this purpose, is itself is often bifurcated into inertial mass, gravitational mass, etc. Inertial mass is the measure of inertia, a property attributed to real matter bodies. Gravitational mass is derived from magnitude of gravitational attraction, experienced by a matter body. However, importance accorded to mass (in place of matter content of a body) caused matter to be regarded as an unnecessary entity even for existence of real bodies. This encouraged developments of exotic theories and mysterious particles. Devising a logical measurement scale can help restore glory to matter, rightly due to it, as the only substance that can provide existence to all real objects.
Observed locations of pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts, after they left the solar system, are displaced from their predicted positions in space and the discrepancy, which could not be explained by current physical laws, is termed as ?pioneer anomaly'. This article attempts to show that noticed discrepancy is an apparent phenomenon, produced by faulty geometry used in contemporary laws of planetary motion. In reality, the space crafts and external efforts on them behave normally. There is no cause for assumption of strange forces or mysterious effects on these space crafts.
A real universal medium should be made up of matter - the only substance that can provide objective reality and positive existence in space. An ideal universal medium should be of homogeneous consistency and it should fill entire space, outside 3D matter bodies, without voids (empty space). At the same time, the universal medium should be flexible enough to have properties of a perfect fluid. Anisotropic nature, which allows relative motions within universal medium, requires that the universal medium should be structured by sub-particles and each of its component matter particles has lot of (apparently) vacant space around it, to allow relative motions. This article attempts to describe, how these contradicting properties are simultaneously achieved in the universal medium, proposed in ?Hypothesis on MATTER?.
Matter is the only substance that can provide real existence to a body in nature. Since matter is the constituent of all real objects, it has to exist in a form much smaller than the smallest real physical object in nature. ?Hypothesis on MATTER', an alternative concept that logically explains all physical phenomena, envisages that matter exists in nature in the form of tiny bits, called ?quanta of matter'. A quantum of matter is the only postulated particle in this concept. Diverse matter bodies (including an all-encompassing universal medium) with assorted properties and their interactions are results of various combinations of ?quanta of matter'. This article gives a brief description of ?quantum of matter', as postulated in ?Hypothesis on MATTER'.
Energy, an undefined entity derived from work, is generally equated to motion. This has necessitated introduction of certain motion of physical bodies, wherever energy is envisaged. All actions are results of work-done rather than energy. Although energy has no definite form, structure or existence, it has gradually come to usurp rightful status of work-done about a physical body. Author proposes an alternative concept that may restore work, motion and energy to their fair and logical status.
In any system of bodies, relativistic considerations can provide only those parameters of the constituent bodies, which are related to their relative positions. Use of a reference frame, related to a static central body, causes a planetary orbit to appear as closed geometrical figure around the central body. As the central body, itself is a moving body, this does not reflect physical reality. Although they help to explain apparent phenomena, all properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital path are unreal. Real physical actions are restricted to real entities and they have to be understood with reference to an absolute reference. Since, elliptical shape of a planetary orbit is an imaginary aspect; it has its limitations to explain real actions in nature. Due to constant motions of free bodies in space, it is practically impossible for a free body to orbit around another. However, they may orbit about each other and follow a common median path in space. Mechanism of orbit-formation and the limitations of orbiting bodies, described in this article, are based on a radically different dynamics from an alternative concept put forward in ?Hypothesis on MATTER'. A planet's parameters, during initial entry into its datum orbit, determine size and eccentricity of its apparent orbit. Only those bodies, which approach the central body from the rear, on the outer side of its curved path, through a small window in space can form stable orbits. Hence, it is imperative that all bodies of a planetary system orbit in the same sense and are (almost) in the same plane. Perihelion/aphelion of an orbital path could be anywhere in the orbit, but the point at which the orbiting body has its highest/lowest linear speeds are fixed in relation to the central body's path. All natural planets, whose perihelion are in front of their point of entry; arrive from outside the planetary system.
Inertia causes all macro bodies to respond sluggishly to external efforts. Three-dimensional matter bodies are inert and they have no ability to move, act or oppose external efforts. However, since no other entity that can prevent instantaneous effects on a 3D matter body by an external effort or maintain constant state of motion of a macro body is known, the phenomenon of inertia is attributed to matter itself, in negative sense. Phenomenon of inertia rightly belongs to the universal medium, which encompasses all 3D matter bodies in entire universe. Inertia is the property of universal medium due to its latticework structure. Only when the mechanism of action of external effort and mechanism of motion of 3D matter bodies are understood, nature of inertia will be clear. All actions in nature are understood by inertial motions/deformations of 3D macro bodies. They have definite mechanism. Motion/deformation of a macro body is the result of additional work-done in the universal medium about the macro body. Mechanism of inertial motion consists of simple rearrangement of constituent "quanta of matter" in the universal medium, about a macro body, to create traveling distortions in the universal medium. Force is the rate of additional work-done about a body with respect to body's acceleration. Forces being mathematical concepts (rates of work), all natural forces are similar. Classifying natural forces, according to their manifestations, does not make any difference in their mechanism of actions or nature of results.
Abstract: A part of central force between planetary and central bodies cause their spin motions. All bodies in planetary systems develop mean accelerating spin motion. Depending on their orbital parameters, planets and central bodies may spin in forward direction, rearward direction or, in rare cases, may have no spin motion at all. All bodies in a planetary system tend to spin in their common orbital plane. Angular accelerations of orbiting bodies continue indefinitely until their high spin speeds cause disintegration of planets and planetary system. In a planetary system, consistency of body-matter and radial size of a body determine relative spin speeds at different parts of its body. Equatorial region of all very large bodies spin faster than their polar region or regions towards their spin-axes. Lengthening of (terrestrial) solar days, presently misinterpreted as slowing down of earth?s spin motion, is the result of insufficient compensation to earth?s apparent spin motion about the sun.
Present explanations on mechanism of tides are based either on centrifugal action or on gravitational attraction. Centrifugal force (due to motion of a body in circular path), used in analytical solutions, is an imaginary effort. Explanations, based on actions by an imaginary effort, cannot be factually correct. One of the fundamental assumptions used to derive the equation for gravitational attraction is that whole matter content (mass) of each body is concentrated at its center. This makes it illogical to assume that different parts of same body have different magnitudes of gravitational attraction towards another body. Therefore, explanations on tides, based on differences in gravitational attractions on different parts of bodies, are perversions of present theory on gravitational attraction. Apparent orbital motion of a body about epicenter of a system is also used in some explanations. In nature, no free body can orbit around another moving body  in geometrically closed path. Orbital path of earth about the sun (or that of moon about earth) is not circular or elliptical around a central body but it zigzags about sun's (earth's) median path in space. Hence, an explanation based on revolution of earth around an epicenter is pure imagination. According to current rules of dynamics, more than one external linear effort on a rigid body can produce only one resultant linear motion. Yet, earth experiences distinctly separate sets of tides from central forces towards moon and sun. Only logical reason for lunar tides to be greater than solar tides is that the central force between earth and moon is greater than that between earth and sun. This cannot be substantiated by current gravitational laws.
This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to tidal mechanism, based on a radically different dynamics, put forward in ?Hypothesis on MATTER' . Tides are caused by (accelerating) actions of external efforts on a linearly moving spinning-body. Each external effort alters shape of the spinning body, separately, to produce its own set of tides. Change in the shape of a spinning body, rather than displacement of its parts, cause tides. Absolute linear motion of the spinning body shifts zenith points of tides from local meridians facing the sun (or moon) and on opposite side. Orbital motion of a spinning body enhances deflection of tides from local meridian. Displacement of ocean water in the direction of moving tide is superficial and it cannot produce tidal drag on earth's solid core body.
?Hypothesis on MATTER' is a revolutionary new concept, which explains all physical phenomena based on just one type of (postulated) basic particle - the Quantum of matter. Conception and development of this model is founded on the conviction that there can be only one type of basic entities. They provide substance and create all other real entities in nature. All (apparent) interactions and diverse properties of superior entities are logical developments from inherent properties of the (postulated) quanta of matter. Quanta of matter, by their natural interactions, creates and structure all other entities including an all-encompassing medium. A wide array of physical phenomena are explained in the book ; from the origin of 3D matter to gravity and subatomic interactions to cosmological events, based on the simple mechanical interactions of quanta of matter. There is no more any need to envisage ?actions at a distance' or to invoke irrational assumptions like diversity of natural forces, mass-energy equivalence, duality of light or constancy of its speed, dual nature of electric charge, singularities, big bang, etc. This new concept will radically alter our understanding of the physical universe and at the same time, explain complex physical phenomena with simple ?Cause and Effect' relationships.
Currently, a central force ? an apparent effort between two free bodies along the line joining them ? is estimated in relativistic frames of references. Estimation of magnitude and direction of central force on planetary bodies/central body in a planetary system assumes that the center of planetary system is static in space. While considering a satellite's orbit, center of corresponding planet is assumed static in space. Although such calculations help to determine relative positions of the bodies, it obscures causes of many other important phenomena related to planetary motion. Determining magnitude and direction of central force with respect to an absolute reference can give us logical explanations to many puzzling phenomena on planetary motions/systems.
Space is a functional entity, presupposed by rational beings, whenever real entities are envisaged. Being a functional entity, space has no structure or form. It can neither physically act nor is able to undergo physical actions. By realizing a real entity that fills the entire space as an all-encompassing universal medium, the formless space can be replaced with a structured real entity. This real entity will have positive existence and at the same time, it can have all properties currently assigned to space or to other imaginary entities like; different types of aether, imaginary particles or various types of fields. No actions can be performed at a distance through empty space. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate (apparent) physical actions between matter bodies at a distance. Aether, used in aether-theories is too vague and fails to describe many physical actions of matter bodies, logically. ?Hypothesis on MATTER' envisages an all-encompassing medium, which has only one type of real (postulated) constituent particles and definite properties. Envisaging a universal medium, as described in the concept, helps to logically explain all physical phenomena, related to matter.
Force is generally understood as cause of an action and result of an action is often quantified as work-done or as energy-transferred. All these terms are very vague and have no clear meanings or definite mechanisms of action. Force is considered as the primary entity and work or energy is considered as the result of action of force. The concept, put forward in the ?Hypothesis on MATTER, depicts force, work and energy as terms with clear meanings. An external effort has a definite mechanism to transfer work from a force-applying body to a force-receiving body. This article intends to give very brief description of various terms, used in conjunction with physical (motion) actions as envisaged in the above mentioned concept. An effort is the cause of an action. Action of an effort transfers work from one macro body to another macro body. Work about a macro body is the distortions in the all-encompassing universal medium about it. Stress developed due to distortions in universal medium about a macro body is the energy stored in and about the macro body. Work is the primary entity and it is real. Force (or power) is the rate of work (being changed by the action of an external effort) and energy is the stress (in the universal medium about a matter body) due to the work. Force and energy are functional entities describing certain aspects of work. For details, kindly refer to .
All natural (inertial) motions are in straight lines. Rotating motion or motion of a macro body in curved path is the result of simultaneous straight-line motions of its 3D matter particles in different directions at differing linear speeds, appropriate to their locations in the macro body. A macro body, moving in a circular path, is under a constant inward effort (central force). It simultaneously has linear motions in two directions. Direction of one of the linear motions is towards the centre of circular path, in the direction of ?centripetal force'. Direction of other linear motion is deflected outward from the tangent to circular path. Outward component of this linear motion gives rise to the assumption of imaginary ?centrifugal force'. In cases of motion in a circular path, centripetal motion of a macro body not only compensates outward component of its linear motion but also deflects direction of its linear motion inward by a constant magnitude. Explanations on rotary motion with respect to absolute (inertial) reference frame can give real parameters without the use of imaginary entities.
Work, invested about a macro body by an external effort, continues to act on the body even after cessation of external effort, until work about the macro body is stabilized and the body attains a steady state (of motion). Phenomenon of inertial delay operates not only during application of an external effort but also during its cessation. Ignoring this fact caused the assumption that the direction of instantaneous linear motion of a macro body, moving in a circular path, is tangential to its path.
Matter bodies seem to exist everywhere in space, more or less evenly distributed. Discovery of gravitation necessitated a search for the cause for distribution of matter bodies throughout universe. Mutual attraction between matter bodies defies possibility of their even distribution in space unless it is counteracted by a repulsive action between matter bodies, at least in large scale-matter bodies. So far, none of various concepts proposed to overcome gravitational attraction between matter bodies on a large scale, has not supplied a rational theory. ?Hypothesis on MATTER' proposes a logical explanation that describes how neighbouring galaxies overcome gravitational attraction, to settle at a stable distance from each other. Same mechanism describes how formation and disbursal of galaxies are determined by their spin motion. Outer periphery (halo) of a spinning galaxy is formed by independent primary particles. They orient their primary electric fields to create sufficient magnetic repulsion between galaxies, to neutralize gravitational attraction between them. This is a natural process originating from the universal medium, which encompasses entire universe. Other macro bodies, smaller or different in structure from stable spinning galaxies, do not have this protection from gravitational attraction. Since galaxies are able to maintain their relative positions in space, universe (as a whole) is able to have a perpetual steady state of existence, except for local recycling of matter.
Logical development of physical theories is hindered by lack of rational mechanism of interactions between matter bodies. This has led to many illogical assumptions. The concept, currently used to facilitate interactions between matter bodies ? ?action at a distance through empty space? ? has no mechanism of action. Vague forms of fields and aether, which are also in use suffer lack of logical structure or mechanisms of action. Until these are replaced by a concept on a rational as well as real entity to facilitate as a medium between matter bodies, development of physical theories will continue to become more and more irrational. Matter is the only real entity in the universe. Hence, it is logical to expect matter to provide structured matter bodies as well as a universal medium that inter-links all matter bodies in nature. Matter itself, has to be in the form of infinite number of basic matter particles. A logical theory, based on only one type of postulated matter particle will lead to the development of an ideal universal medium. This universal medium should be able to account for all physical phenomena in nature, under the same rules and under all conditions.
Time is a functional entity, derived from the fundamental property of basic 3D matter particles to move at a constant linear seed. 3D matter has no ability to act or move. It is the all-encompassing medium around the 3D matter particle, which moves the 3D matter particle at the highest possible speed. Unit of time is related to the interval required by an elementary 3D matter particle to traverse definite quantity of all-encompassing medium in space. Relating other activities, about 3D matter bodies, to time help us to rationalize in terms of cause and effect relations. Due to its lack of physical form, time can neither expand nor contract nor flow in any direction.