- Gyroscopic Paradox of Motion, Part II (2012) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Gyroscopic Paradox of Motion: Validation of Mach's Principle? (2011) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Experimentum Crucis for Magnetic Interaction (2010) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Equilibrium and pH (2010) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Solution to Energy Dilemma via Faraday Pressure (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Gravitational Permiosity of Deep Space (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Faraday Pressure and Energy Conservation (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Dual Dilemma From Faradays? Law ? Constructive Fraud at the Foundation of Electrodynamics (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Magnetic Interaction Reconfigured (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
- The Dilemma of Radiant Momentum ? a Poynting Paradox and its Resolution (2007) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Mass Disparities from Relativistic Electrodynamics (2007) [Updated 5 years ago]
- Anentropic Thermodynamics (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
- Galileo Revisited: a True Test of General Relativity (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
- Methodology in Physical Science (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]

- Gyroscopic Paradox of Motion, Part II (2012) [Updated 5 years ago]
The cause of the several conundrums and paradoxes involving gyroscopic and centrifugal forces which were introduced in Part I are examined n greater detail in Part II. The merits of Newtonian Absolute Space are weighed against those of Machian Relative Space. Modification of a simple rotational device presents a more complex analytical challenge: its calculated conformance with local angular momentum conservation depends upon a basic assumption regarding the precise quantification of gyroscopic torque. Postulation of Machian interaction of the local system with distant matter to account for centrifugal and gyroscopic forces would require radical reassignment of components of the inertia tensor; any local discrepancy in angular momentum conservation would strongly indicate such interaction. An ?existence theorem' for this contingency is framed and examined, though it remains decidedly unproven. Another calculative paradox is introduced in this context. A hypothetical experimental procedure is described to settle the issue.

- Gyroscopic Paradox of Motion: Validation of Mach's Principle? (2011) [Updated 5 years ago]
A discussion of angular momentum conservation in the context of the long-standing controversy over Absolute vs. Relative space raises doubts on the consistency of an aspect of Newtonian mechanics in situations involving compound rotational dynamics. Historical review of such problems, those noted by Laithwaite in particular, introduces the issue: A paradox arises in situations in which precessing gyroscopes revolve at the respective ?poles' of a spherical gravitating body, or are mounted in the framework of an accelerating system. Difficulties in conformance to the classical law of angular momentum conservation are encountered. A resolution is presented, theoretically possible within Newtonian mechanics; but such resolution raises further questions regarding both the quantification of centrifugal force, and of gyroscopic torque, in the precessional motion of generalized rigid bodies. Meticulous analysis of the problem, with close attention to Centrifugal, Coriolis and Eulerian torques on mass elements, results in a dilemma for the mechanics of rotation: either the axis of rotation does not necessarily pass through the center of mass of a system but perambulates about it due to a deficit of centrifugal force, or classical angular momentum is not always conserved but is upset by wayward gyroscopic torque. A theoretical design is presented in which internal angular momentum may increase indefinitely. The phenomena suggest adoption of a Machian-style interaction to preserve the laws of motion; however, potential difficulties in conforming such a solution to the inertia tensor are presented. A curious correspondence with Meno's gyron theory is also described.

- Experimentum Crucis for Magnetic Interaction (2010) [Updated 9 years ago]
The investigation of the long-standing controversy over the precise formulation of the magnetic interaction between steady currents (or between uniformly moving charges) is re-opened. An experimental technique is proposed whereby the distinction between the Ampere-Weber ?central force' formulation and the Grassmann-Lorentz ?normal force' formulation can be demonstrated decisively within a modestly equipped laboratory. Although no preference is advanced on theoretical grounds, a confirmation of the ?normal force' law would have notable consequences for theory: the third law of motion could only be satisfied through reaction against a background medium, and the possibility of a ?jetless' propulsion system is thereby suggested. It is also argued that the ?longitudinal' portion of the original Ampere force law is nonetheless compatible with, and perhaps necessary for, either possible outcome.

- Equilibrium and pH (2010) [Updated 9 years ago]
An analysis of the development of equilibrium chemistry, particularly as applied to acid-base relations, reveals numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the quantification procedures. The dimensionality of the equilibrium constant is distorted by the consistent failure to include the aqueous concentration of 55.5 moles per liter in the denominator of the equations. Other inaccuracies result from the neglect of the change in non-ionized solute concentration by the ionized portion, the neglect of the volume displacement of the solvent by the solute in aqueous solutions, and the neglect to factor in the pre-existent aqueous contribution to the hydrogen ion concentration in pH determinations. Corrections to the equilibrium equation and to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation are proposed on this basis, along with a shift from a ?molar' context to a ?molal' context for solute concentrations. A new quantification scheme is developed in which ?neutral' is found at zero rather than at seven.

- Solution to Energy Dilemma via Faraday Pressure (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
This sequel to 'Dual Dilemma from Faraday's Law' is an explication of the underlying principles of electrodynamics as they pertain to the classical conservation laws; the situations described herein involving interacting charged wheels are highly idealized, as was the case in the original Dual Dilemma paper itself. The arguments are thus theoretical, and are not in themselves expected to be confirmable by direct laboratory tests. Specifically, the analysis answers the seeming non-conservation of angular momentum resulting from counter-torque applied to a charged wheel by an induced electric field circulation, while simultaneously observing the need for energy conservation. (Since only relative magnitudes of quantities are of concern, relations will be expressed in scalar notation; directions of quantities, where important, should be recognizable from context.) The problem of radiation from accelerated charges is also critically examined, and new formulations are derived to describe the phenomenon. A resolution of the long-standing controversy regarding the seeming non-compliance of the Lorentz force with the third law of motion is also provided.

- Gravitational Permiosity of Deep Space (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
The abaryonic dark matter hypothesis is critically examined for its manifest weaknesses and defects. It is stressed that although dark matter is one possible explanation for apparent gravitational field strengths otherwise unexplainable by observable matter, it currently lacks direct laboratory evidence. That hypothesis, in particular as regards the sheer relative quantity of dark matter over ordinary matter, is also found to be directly at odds with the much-celebrated ?accelerated expansion? model of the universe --the ?dark energy? hypothesis. Several speculative propositions about dark matter are briefly discussed, from the possibility of simple misreading of the observational data due to other sundry causes, after which the concept of ?gravitic permiosity' is introduced. In this model, increased gravitational effects in large-scale cosmic systems are explained in terms of a pervading property of space itself, analogous to the respective electromagnetic permittivity/permeability, whose topical variation enhances the strength of gravitational fields in deep space in a manner parallel to the action of dielectric and diamagnetic materials on EM fields.

- Faraday Pressure and Energy Conservation (2009) [Updated 5 years ago]
This sequel to 'Dual Dilemma from Faraday's Law' is an explication of the underlying principles of electrodynamics as they pertain to the classical conservation laws. Specifically, the analysis follows the seeming non-conservation of angular momentum resulting from counter-torque applied to a charged wheel by an induced electric field circulation, while simultaneously answering the need for energy conservation. In this context, a magnetic ?field pressure' is introduced to account for work demands on mechanical sources in electrodynamic systems. The problem of radiation from accelerated charges is also critically examined, and new formulations are derived to describe the phenomenon. The problem of the seeming non-compliance of the Lorentz force with the third law of motion is resolved, and the paper concludes with a brief refutation of the notion of ?field momentum'.

- Dual Dilemma From Faradays? Law ? Constructive Fraud at the Foundation of Electrodynamics (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
The original formulation of Faraday?s Law (the motivation of an electric current in a conductor about a region of expanding magnetic flux), and its well-known expression in Maxwell?s fourth equation (the generation of an actual electric field circulation about such a region of magnetic flux change) are examined in the context of energy and angular momentum conservation. It is shown that these formulations, especially Maxwell?s equation, directly violate both conservation laws ?i.e., the First Law of Thermodynamics and the Third Law of Motion. Several idealized descriptive arrangements of experimental apparatus are employed in demonstrating the persistent fallacies in the conceptions of electromagnetic relations from the very outset of their theoretical development: various systems of free charges, co-axial coils and rotating charged wheels display specific (though unintentional) conflicts with basic laws of mechanics ?evidence of ?constructive fraud?? and point to the need for a thorough re-evaluation of the premises of electrodynamics. Several possible directions toward reformulation are briefly critiqued; more studied attention is then devoted to an Ether Traction-Compression Hypothesis to resolve the issues.

- Magnetic Interaction Reconfigured (2008) [Updated 5 years ago]
The fundamental nature of the magnetic interaction is examined in the context of momentum conservation. The standard formulation of this interaction is found to be incompatible with the third law of motion and with the relativity principle. Resolution of the dilemma is provided through the application of a novel mathematical device to the phenomenon, whereby the magnetic field is so configured that the force always lies in the direction of the field source. Comparison of this device with the law of Biot-Savart and with the Amp?re formula is accompanied by proposals for experimental discrimination.

- The Dilemma of Radiant Momentum ? a Poynting Paradox and its Resolution (2007) [Updated 5 years ago]
An examination of the classical Maxwellian model for electromagnetic wave propagation leads to discovery of a serious deficiency of mechanism for momentum transmission, as well as for assessment of energy delivery to a moving body from the Poynting theorem. The dilemma can neither be resolved through a classical ballistic theory, nor through special relativity theory. A paradox involving the Poynting vector is resolved through the hypothesis of a longitudinal ether compression wave, co-propagated with the transverse electromagnetic field wave. In this model, energy carried by the wave in accordance with the Poynting vector is equally apportioned between transverse static field energy and longitudinal compression kinetic energy. Kinetic and internal energy delivered to a material body are respectively apportioned according to its reflectivity and state of motion.

- Mass Disparities from Relativistic Electrodynamics (2007) [Updated 5 years ago]
When the theoretical force between two electric charges is employed to compress a standard mechanical spring, the action is examined from two different inertial reference frames. A direct contradiction in relativity theory is revealed where the work done on the spring in the relatively moving frame does not equate with its requisite mass increase. Another contradiction in theory concerns the illusory nature of ?relativistic inertia?, whereby certain deduced relative displacement and momentum magnitudes of interacting bodies are shown to conflict with other specific transformation requirements. Other explanations for the increased resistance of moving charged particles to acceleration are briefly examined.

- Anentropic Thermodynamics (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
A brief review of the status of the second law of thermodynamics examines the possibility of overcoming the notorious ?information? deficit that invalidates the famous ?Szilard Engine?. A simple mechanical arrangement is described which enables a recursive, self-regulating cycle to occur in a cylinder of rarified gas without additional information input. Although theoretical, the design is also notably more practicable than previous attempts.

- Galileo Revisited: a True Test of General Relativity (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
A brief discussion of some of the theoretical and experimental difficulties with the general theory of relativity is presented in the context of traditional methodology. In particular, it is noted that the principle experiments for general relativity fail to test its underlying ?Principle of Equivalence?. A simple adaptation of the falling body experiment is proposed, in which electric charge is involved, to determine the truth or falsity of the equivalence principle.

- Methodology in Physical Science (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
A critique of the methodolgy of physics compares the modern "analytical" method with the older ?synthetic? method, with reference to the distinction between the respective schools of geometry. The synthetic approach is recommended as an alternative for the future of physics, and parallels are drawn to the Socratic method and to detective science. The discussion includes some historical literary references, and is supplemented with two exhibits.