- An Optimistic Assessment of "Fringe"? Science (2013) [Updated 7 years ago]
- Analysis of Lockyer Cubes (2012) [Updated 7 years ago]
- Fourier Closed Loops (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
- The Convergence of New Physics Paradigms: Unity in Diversity (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
- A Matter of Definition (2011) [Updated 6 years ago]
- Pseudovectors and Pseudoscalars, or Reflections on Reflection (2010) [Updated 8 years ago]
- Toroids, Vortices, Knots, Topology and Quanta (2010) [Updated 3 years ago]
- The Rodin Number Map and Rodin Coil (2010) [Updated 8 years ago]
- 39 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Reference-Frame Independent Dynamics, Or How to Get Off Einstein's Train (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]
- The Meaning of Maxwell's Equations (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
- The Nature of Eynptor (Entropy) (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]

- An Optimistic Assessment of "Fringe"? Science (2013) [Updated 7 years ago]
What does "fringe" science really mean? Who are all these crazy people on the fringe? Why do they do it? Why should anyone pay attention to them? Do fringe scientists propose multiple universes? Something from nothing? Extra dimensions? Aliens? Do they all wear tin foil hats? What do they think about gluons, neutrinos and the Higgs boson? The answers might surprise you.

- Analysis of Lockyer Cubes (2012) [Updated 7 years ago]
Thomas Lockyer claims many discoveries related to the flow of

**E**,**H**and**S**fields around a cube [1-3]. He claims that there exist only five ways in which these three vector fields can flow through the eight corners of a cube, and that these five ways correspond to five fundamental particles. Unfortunately Lockyer has never specified the rules governing this flow, nor has he proven that only five such possibilities exist. This paper intends to list the applicable rules, and exhaustively explore these possibilities, to confirm or deny Lockyer?s claims. - Fourier Closed Loops (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
Every closed loop path, however complex, can be characterized in terms of a parameter running from 0 to 2 Pi. Thus, the three coordinates (x,y,z) describing a path are themselves periodic signals of the same parameter, and may therefore be broken into Fourier components. We can then recombine the coordinates (x,y,z) of each harmonic component, and obtain a series of closed loops which together reconstruct the original loop. This paper will show that each of these loops is in fact an ellipse, meaning that any closed loop path can ultimately be broken into a series of ellipses, completing their circuits in multiples of the original parameter.

Interestingly, this concept could be applied to knot theory, since the invariant information about a given

knot is necessarily contained in the relative orientations of the ellipses comprising the Fourier series. It could be used as a tool for modeling electromagnetic structures that may exhibit the properties of elementary particles, and for designing a desired force characteristic, created by the actual geometry of a coil winding. One particular force this method of analysis could generate is the ?chiral force?, wherein repulsion or attraction between adjacent coils depends only on their relative handedness or helicity. - The Convergence of New Physics Paradigms: Unity in Diversity (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
The sections in this paper were originally written for the website of the newly forming Global Science Foundation (GSF) [1], to introduce non-technical readers to the various categories of research among independent scientists today. Now they can also be found under the 'Topics' heading of the World Science Database (WSD) [2]. Their second purpose is to expose researchers in each individual area to work arising from other areas, encouraging them to recognize common ground with research in completely different disciplines. Indeed the convergence of key ideas across disciplinary boundaries is striking, strengthening the conviction that the paradigms emerging among independents today are both profound and unifying. However, just as for decades individuals have developed theories in isolation, so entire communities of independent scientists have emerged in complete ignorance of the larger community of paradigm challengers. Today the WSD and GSF are committed to breaking down these walls of isolation. Thus, in celebration of the fact that the 'Electric Universe' community will join the Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA-18) at its annual conference in July 2011, this paper collects the various short essays into a single unit. Hopefully, the reader can sense the full weight of paradigms poised to change the face of science drastically and forever. While the various categories could be categorized in a number of ways, topics here include: Cold Fusion, Cosmology, Electric Universe, Electrodynamics, Aether, Expansion Tectonics, Gravity, New Energy, Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, Structure, Tesla Technologies, and Unified Theory.

- A Matter of Definition (2011) [Updated 6 years ago]
Many significant problems in physics remain unsolved not merely for lack of clever mathematics or even a good theory, but for lack of a proper paradigm behind the mathematics. Therefore, this paper examines the definitions of several fundamental properties such as space, time, energy, field, force, mass, entropy and temperature, suggesting fundamentally new ways of understanding them all. Also the quadratic nature of energy defined as relationship naturally leads to a distinction between self energy within objects and interaction energy between objects. This distinction admits new definitions of entropy and temperature, based on the unavoidable cross terms inherent in any quadratic formulation. Further, the foundational concepts of the circuit and rotation are shown to be intimately connected with the very existence of particles and their structure. Certainly rotation plays a foundational and still overlooked role in explaining the energy relation E = mc

^{2}as well as the very nature of light as an interaction between particles. - Pseudovectors and Pseudoscalars, or Reflections on Reflection (2010) [Updated 8 years ago]
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained.

Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.

NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization

- Toroids, Vortices, Knots, Topology and Quanta (2010) [Updated 3 years ago]
What causes matter to bind together into the clusters we call particles? At every location within every stable particle there must exist a balance between the natural repulsion of like elements and the attraction due to parallel motions. For continuums of matter, every moving element within a structure must be immediately replaced by another, creating a circuit. Now if circuits form the basis for the structure of matter itself, then analysis of the most fundamental form of circuit, the toroid, is a worthy subject. I explore many interesting features of toroidal coordinates, the relationship toroids have with vortices, and the intimate connection between toroid knots and topology. Real stable 3D particles must contain circulations both around the toroid of radius R and the cross-section of radius r, so that for every m times an element circulates around the toroid, it circulates n times around the torus. This integer relationship changes instantly when the relative phases exceed 360. The quantum jump we observe at this point equates to the 'strobe effect', seen in a Las Vegas roulette wheel, wagon wheels in old westerns, and Lissajous patterns. Backed by a physical demonstration, I argue that these quantum jumps correspond precisely with the absorption and emission of photons. Finally I examine the increasingly popular Rodin coil, as a toroid case study.

- The Rodin Number Map and Rodin Coil (2010) [Updated 8 years ago]
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained.

Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.

NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization

- 39 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]
The growing body of anomalies in new energy, low energy nuclear reactions, astrophysics, atomic physics, and entanglement, combined with the failure of the Standard Model and string theory to predict many of the most basic fundamental phenomena, all point to a need for major new paradigms. Not Band-Aids, but revolutionary new ways of conceptualizing physics, in the spirit of Thomas Kuhn's

*The Structure of Scientific Revolutions*. This paper identifies a number of long-held, but unproven assumptions currently being challenged by an increasing number of alternative scientists. Two common themes, both with venerable histories, keep recurring in the many alternative theories being proposed: (1) Mach's Principle, and (2) toroidal, vortex particles. Matter-based Mach's Principle differs from both space-based universal frames and observer-based Einsteinian relativity. Toroidal particles, in addition to explaining electron spin and the fundamental constants, satisfy the basic requirement of Gauss's misunderstood B Law, that motion itself circulates. Though a comprehensive theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it will suggest alternatives to the long list of assumptions in context. - Reference-Frame Independent Dynamics, Or How to Get Off Einstein's Train (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]
Einstein spent his life trying to develop a system of dynamics independent of reference frame. But this lofty goal demands a hard look at the very meaning of reference frame, a starting point for this paper. Einstein's fruitless attempts were based on his own observer-based theory of relativity, in turn based on Lorentzian covariant paradigms. Covariant mathematics admits transformations between coordinate systems and reference frames, but does not suggest a path towards invariance. However, the del operator provides a means of expressing spatial derivatives independent of coordinate system. Likewise, if time is independent of space, as this paper suggests, the total time derivative operator, d/dt, is also independent of reference frame. Therefore, physical equations that can be expressed with the del operator and the total time derivative, as opposed to reference-frame dependent partial derivatives, are naturally independent of reference frame. In particular, Maxwell's equations can be correct only if expressible by the del and d/dt operators, as proposed by Hertz and more recently advocated by Phipps. From fluid dynamics, developed by Bernoulli, Euler, Langrange, and many others, over a hundred years before Maxwell, we have the convective or Lagrangian time derivative d/dt = d/dt + v * del. Both sides of this equality are independent of observer, but the two right-hand terms differ in weight depending on how an observer moves with respect to the quantity being differentiated. One observer might see a buildup of material, while another sees an altered flow; one observer might see a changing field, another an acceleration. But the total change, the sum, remains invariant. With the convective derivative, we can readily derive Maxwell's famous "source current" term in Ampere's Law and clear up mysteries surrounding Faraday's Law, particularily relating to unipolar induction and the Sagnac experiment. Invariant Hertzian dynamics provides a means to finally get off Einstein's covariant train.

- The Meaning of Maxwell's Equations (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
If Maxwell's Equations are fundamental, and this paper suggests they are, then they must correspond to the most fundamental notions in our 3D physical universe. Why are there exactly four fundamental physical transformations (reflection, translation, rotation, and scale)? Why are there four basic forms of energy (potential [eV], translational [mc2], rotational [hv], thermal [kT])? Why do unit systems require five independent properties (SI: mass, charge [current], length, time, temperature). Can a natural unit system correspond with Maxwell's Equations? Why do physical systems conserve five properties (energy, charge, linear momentum, angular momentum, and something else [parity? spin? what?])? Why is space 3D? What do divergence and curl mean? Why does complex algebra describe physical systems so well? Do the Gauss Laws really operate independent of time? What form of Ampere's and Faraday's Laws are fundamental? Are integral or derivative forms more fundamental? How do we derive other laws from these four? If Maxwell's Equations really are fundamental, we should demand more from them. They will not disappoint.

- The Nature of Eynptor (Entropy) (2009) [Updated 3 years ago]
A tremendous amount of confusion surrounds the physical understanding of entropy. How can an inequality (the Second Law) be derived from equalities (Maxwell's Equations)? The resolution comes from realizing that electrodynamics, in particular div

**B**= 0, demands that matter (charge) flows in closed loops or circuits. Therefore particles themselves must be composed of tiny circuits of flowing charge. Now ultimately all energy is "interaction" between elements of matter, however the vast majority of physical energy stems from interactions between elements within the same circulating particle. This "self energy" exists independent of other particles, and has several names, such as "inertial energy" or "zero point energy" (ZPE). Any system of particles also contains interactions between particles, and the question now becomes, "How much of the total energy represents interactions*between*particles and how much the self energy*within*or*of*the particles?" We already have a quantity that has unknowingly answered this important question for us: entropy. Entropy is thus defined as the amount of interaction (or energy) between components of a system divided by the total interactions (energy) of the system. Boltzmann's constant is merely a scaling factor for physical systems, denoting the maximum that a particle can be "entangled" with its environment. This simple, but powerful definition applies to any system composed of discreet units, and explains why entropy is a fundamentally quantum concept. It is meaningless without discreet units of something. The Second Law can now be understood as either as an increase in interaction energy (*between*particles) or a decrease in self energies (*of*particles). Radiating particles generally (but not always) expand, and thus lose self energy and obey the Second Law. However, under specific resonant conditions particles can contract, and thus gain self energy and defy the Second Law. Since discreet units (particles, molecules, or planets) can build higher-level discreet units (atoms, organisms, or solar systems), the measure of entropy also depends on the level or scale at which you examine a system. Since all energy is ultimately interaction energy, at the level of the infinitessimal the Universe in a certain sense has constant entropy. Stated another way, the Universe is now and always has been in a state of perfect equilibrium.