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Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney
local time: 2022-08-08 08:56 (-04:00 DST)
Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • How Electrodynamics with Statistical Mechanics Can Imply Gravitation (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    This paper shows how the phenomenon of gravitational attraction can arise from known Electrodynamics when it is combined with ideas from the discipline of Statistical Mechanics. The key input from Electrodynamics is the classical understanding about magnetic interactions between tiny current elements. The key input
    from Statistical Mechanics is the classical idea of distribution among possible energy states based on maximum entropy.


  • How Electrodynamics with Statistical Mechanics Can Imply Gravitation (2013) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    This paper shows how the phenomenon of gravitational attraction can arise from known Electrodynamics when it is combined with ideas from the discipline of Statistical Mechanics. The key input from Electrodynamics is the classical understanding about magnetic interactions between tiny current elements. The key input from Statistical Mechanics is the classical idea of distribution among possible energy states based on maximum entropy.


  • Lessons from the Field: The 2013 John Chappell Memorial Lecture (2013) [Updated 9 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Like most of you listening to this lecture, or reading this hardcopy later, I have been on a life-long journey, meandering to be sure, but progressing I think. I believe in the possibility of reaching a place where there will be a bit more understanding about what is going on in the physical universe. Along the way, I have gotten swatted down a lot. So will you. But there are some funny stories to tell about all those swat experiences, and laughter does overcome just about everything. So herein are my best ?Swat Stories'. I hope my stories will help you through your own journeys.


  • About the Arrow of Time (2012) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    becomes an inevitable part of the mathematical description of all systems. That point is the appearance of Maxwell?s four coupled field equations. Very early, the four coupled field equations were inserted one into another to produce two uncoupled wave equations. This manipulation revealed the finite wave propagation speed . Compared to Newtonian physics, the finite wave propagation speed was something new in Physics. But it wasn't then tied into the development of irreversibility, because the two wave equations themselves are time reversal invariant. However, the original coupled field equations are not time reversal invariant, and from that fact there flows an important story that has implications concerning the status we should attribute to Einstein's Special Relativity Theory (SRT).


  • A New Theory for Important New Technologies (2011) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    This paper responds to two of the 2010 NPA Conference offerings: 1) a presentation concerning the current status of ?Cold Fusion', and 2) a paper discussing the properties and behavior of ?Brown's Gas'. The objective of the present paper is to provide a unified theoretical understanding of the experimental facts from both of those technologies. The basis for this theoretical understanding has been developing for about ten years, with most of the foundational ideas having been introduced at earlier NPA conferences, and then presented in a variety of other venues, under the general title ?Algebraic Chemistry'. The experimental facts of Cold Fusion and of Brown's Gas appear to be consistent with the theoretical framework provided by Algebraic Chemistry. That framework now promises to offer practical guidance on matters such as choosing materials, conditions, etc., to maximize the efficiency of the new technologies.


  • Maxwell Theory and Galilean Relativity (2010) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained.

    Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.

    NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization


  • Maxwell's Maximum (2009) [Updated 9 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    This paper looks in detail at the situation that develops with Maxwell’s coupled field equations when the
    initial condition constitutes a pair of field pulses, in E and B, with finite total energy, such as would be needed
    to plausibly model a light signal for SRT, or a photon for QM. What emerges from the analysis is that, during
    propagation, the initial pulses always tend to spread longitudinally into complex waveforms exhibiting oscillation.
    So ‘light in flight’ is never a simple pair of pulses. It is a pair of spread-out waveforms, with maxima in
    the middle and long oscillating tails fore and aft. The waveform centroid may be said to travel at light speed c,
    but that fact alone does not at all adequately characterize light signals for SRT, or photons for QM.


  • Electric and Magnetic Fields According to Hermann Minkowski (2008) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Zbigniew Oziewicz, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained.

    Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.

    NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization


  • Physics as a Building Project in Need of Design Review (2008) [Updated 9 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    This paper develops a blueprint for the historical development of physics in general, highlighting present-day contributions from NPA participants in particular. The metaphor for physics as a building project involves a number of unwieldy building blocks in not-completely-stable relation to each other. Stresses and strains are pointed out, and redesign/rebuilding efforts are recommended.


  • Mainstreaming: A Personal Progress Report (2008) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    After 15 years of nurturing within the NPA, some of my ideas are now getting some mainstream attention. How did such a thing ever start to happen? For what it may be worth to other NPA people with similar goals, I will opine a bit on that question.


  • The Neutron: A Challenge for Post-Maxwell Physics (2008) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Publishes monographs and conference proceedings on mathematics, physics and chemistry. Also publishes a quarterly journal. Accepts unsolicited manuscripts.


  • On the Visual Images that Atoms Create (2007) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Every element in the Periodic Table admits a set of ?ionization potentials? (IP?s), the number of them being equal to the element nuclear charge Z. If we knew all the IP?s for all of the known elements, we would have on the order of 5000 data items. We do not presently have nearly that many of them, since most of them are as yet too difficult to measure. In fact, less than 400 of them are readily available. Nevertheless, this is a rich database for study in parallel with study of physical theory. It reveals a recurring regular pattern, with clarity sufficient to imply plausible predictions about all the thousands of IP data points not yet measured. It proves that existing theories are wrong in several respects, and it can guide the development of a better theory. I first began talking about this exercise to this audience here at Storrs four years ago, and the present paper is a further update. The developing physical theory avoids the unprovable postulates concerning constant light speed c and action quantum h that were so basic to physics in the 20th century, and replaces them both with just one possibly provable new postulate concerning light propagation. The new theory is more consistent with the observable behavior of IP?s. It also explains the stability of neutral atoms overall, and recently also the stability of same-sign charge clusters, which I believe are constituents of all trans-Hydrogenic atoms.


  • On the Visual Images that Galaxies Create (2007) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    The visual image of a spiral galaxy is one of the most tantalizing images in Nature. And it is very pervasive. Whether large or small, young or old, heavily or sparsely populated with stars, galaxies usually show spiral arms. And this is true despite the fact that galaxies are not rigid bodies, so any particular structure ought to unravel over time, and so ought not to appear pervasive at any moment in time. The mechanism that creates and sustains the pervasive spiral galaxy form is presently a subject for debate. Candidate mechanisms include both gravitational and electromagnetic ones. With several candidates on the table, I feel free to add another. It is my belief that common results usually arise from common causes. So what else is common in cosmology? Two-body systems are. I believe the common mechanism behind spiral galaxy structure is provided by a super-massive two-body system at the heart of every such galaxy. If there is any non-infinite speed associated with gravity, then the same kind of analysis that my first paper discusses for electromagnetic stability in atoms and charge clusters also applies to galaxies. A super massive two-body system at the heart of a galaxy leads to a spiral shaped background field that the normal sized stars of the galaxy fall into, thereby creating the spiral appearance. I first began writing about this subject in the 1980?s, but have so far not reprised it for this audience. My thanks go to Alexander Scarborough for rekindling my enthusiasm.


  • Relativistic Dynamics in Basic Chemistry (2007) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    An International Journal Devoted to the Conceptual Bases and Fundamental Theories of Modern Physics. Foundations of Physics merged with Foundations of Physics Letters on March 1, 1970.

    Online ISSN: 1572-9516


  • On What Optical Systems Can See (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    It is a dictum of Einstein?s Special Relativity Theory (SRT) that the strictly inertial motion of any physical system cannot be detected without some reference external to the system. This dictum has been tested through the years by a variety of optical experiments. Usually, the motivation has been to re-open the case with regard to the concept of a ?luminiferous aether?, which had dominated much of scientific thought in the century before Einstein?s revolution. Results have generally been proclaimed ?null?, although in actuality they have sometimes been rather ambiguous, and the more so the more recent the work is. But aversion to anything like the old ?luminiferous aether? still hinders acknowledgment of any such results. It is my belief that any linear velocity with respect to which an optical system can be reversed can indeed be sensed, but that the proper inference to be drawn from that fact does not concern any kind of ?luminiferous aether?, or even modern ?physical ether?. Instead, the proper inference is that revision of Einstein?s light speed postulate is needed. A modified postulate, different but still ether-free, is shown to lead to observed results.


  • On What Electromagnetic Systems Can Feel (2006) [Updated 5 years ago]

    Within the classical description of the electromagnetic fields that are created by a rapidly moving source, there exists a fascinating curiosity. The curiosity is revealed in a simple scenario in which the source traverses a sinusoid in a plane as viewed by a stationary observer. This motion is a superposition of two basic parts: a high-speed linear translation, plus a low-amplitude harmonic oscillation. The linear translation creates Coulomb-Ampere fields, and the oscillation creates radiation fields. The curiosity is that, while the Poynting vector for the radiation is always pointing from the ?causally-connected?, or ?retarded?, position of the source, the Coulomb attraction/repulsion never is. The classical description that produces this curiosity dates from the turn of the twentieth century, with the work of Lienard and Wiechert. Although their work predates Einstein?s work, it is nevertheless consistent with his light speed postulate, and so has survived along with his Special Relativity Theory (SRT) for all this time, despite any curiosities that ensue. It is my belief that appropriately revising the postulate can remove this curiosity, as well as all other curiosities attendant to SRT.


  • Algebraic Chemistry: Parts I-V (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Publishes monographs and conference proceedings on mathematics, physics and chemistry. Also publishes a quarterly journal. Accepts unsolicited manuscripts.


  • Essentials on Special Relativity Theory (2006) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Publishes monographs and conference proceedings on mathematics, physics and chemistry. Also publishes a quarterly journal. Accepts unsolicited manuscripts


  • ?Algebraic Chemistry? Based on a ?PIRT? (2006) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    The present paper continues on from my 2004 PIRT paper entitled ?Can Chemical Data Support a ?PIRT???. The present paper first provides more detail on the variation of ionization potentials within the periods of the Period-ic Table. The description developed refers to the standard quantum numbers n,l,s ( n=1 to infinity, l=0 to n−1, s=−1/2,+1/2) for single-electron states that are incorporated into successively larger atoms. The empiri-cal Madelung and Hund rules that are found in today?s chemistry textbooks provide the nominal filling order for sin-gle-electron states. Using this filling order, a simple empirical formula is developed for the local slopes on a log plot of the ionization potentials. The formula is quite accurate for first ionization potentials, but becomes less accurate for higher-order ionization potentials. This fact could well be related to the fact that the filling order that actually occurs in Nature departs from the standard one for about 20% of the known elements. Accordingly, the filling order for single-electron states is itself investigated next. A more efficacious empirical rule is developed. Like the stan-dard one, it involves sums of traditional quantum numbers, but unlike the standard one, judiciously chosen coeffi-cients that are powers of 2 provide the needed improvements. The resulting formulation automatically directs atten-tion to the elements for which the departures from the textbook rules actually do occur. The paper concludes with an indication of future work.


  • SRT?s ?Rosetta Stone? (2005) [Updated 5 years ago]

    The history of mathematical physics has seen its Newtonian era, with its Euclidean concept of Space, its Universal Time, and its Galilean Velocity, and then its Einsteinian era, with its relativistic concepts of spacetime and velocity. The present-day understanding is that these two eras represent two different and incommensurable worldviews; that the Einsteinian worldview can completely replace the Newtonain worldview, because the Newtonian worldview is at best a limiting approximation to the ?correct? Einsteinian worldview. By contrast, the present author believes that the two worldviews are exactly that: two views of one reality, expressed in two different mathematical languages. But once a ?multilingual dictionary?, a ?Rosetta Stone?, is provided, the two different worldviews can produce the same mental understanding. The key ingredient for such a ?Rosetta Stone? is a third worldview. One possible basis for such a third worldview is a revised postulate about the way in which light propagates. This author presented one such postulate to this audience at our last conference, and the present paper gives the resulting ?Rosetta Stone?. Once the ?Rosetta Stone? is in hand, all the worldviews can produce the same, though new, mental understanding. This new mental understanding can be re-expressed in natural (verbal) language that is more nuanced and precise, less paradox-ridden and confusing, than was heretofore imagined.


  • GRT?s ?Flat Spot? (2005) [Updated 5 years ago]

    In classical physics, a potential is an entity whose physical effects are revealed by its derivatives. For example, the gradient of Newtonian gravitational potential is gravitational force per unit mass responding, the gradient of Coulomb potential is an electric field, the time derivative of Ampere vector potential augments that electric field, and the curl of that vector potential is the magnetic field. In quantum physics, the vector potential can produce an effect directly: a phase shift. This is, perhaps, an example of a potential producing a physical effect without any differentiation. Likewise in GRT, the gravitational potential can produce physical effects directly: it can slow clocks, redden light emitted, or bend light passing by, and contribute to orbit precessions. All this is very confounding. We might, perhaps, be well advised to create a different word for ?potentials? that require no differentiation to cause a physical effect. On the other hand, it could be that the physical effects observed ought to be attributed, not to potentials per se, but rather to appropriate second derivatives thereof. This paper discusses candidate second order expressions to account for the GRT effects. The new second-order expressions work in the scenarios for which we presently have data (primarily GPS scenarios), but could be discriminated from GRT in a new, but available, scenario: we need to document how an atomic clock runs at the saddle-point of the gravitational potential between two source masses, such as Earth and Moon.


  • Planck's Constant: A Yin/Yang Balance (2005) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    2005 ANPA Proceedings


  • An Astronomy Model within an Infinite Universe (2004) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Eit Gaastra, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    In a Universe infinite in space and time, Population II stars may blacken, cool down, assemble hydrogen, and ignite as Population I stars, which finally blacken too, assemble hydrogen, etc. In this way, stars with very big heavy-element cores may come to existence, which may explain the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of white dwarfs as well as the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of bright blue stars. When celestial objects (with heavy elements) become very big, the gravitational contraction may become so high that endothermic reactions start: elements may fuse into elements higher than iron while absorbing low temperature (CBR) radiation, which may explain pulsars. When celestial objects become extremely big, then a reaction may start that turns elements higher than iron into very small elements, mainly HII and electrons, which then may explain radio loud activity by AGNs. Shrunken remnants of old galaxies may become the nuclei of new galaxies as well as the nuclei of AGNs. The cause of solar system formation may by objects (future planets) that travel through interstellar space, attracted to stars.

     


  • This is NOT Einstein's Postulate (2004) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained.

    Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.

    NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization


  • Editorial Comments (of NPA Conference #10 Proceedings) (2003) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Hal Fox, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Technical journal for new energy technologies


  • Spectroscopy's 'Relativistic' Keystone (2003) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Technical journal for new energy technologies


  • Do Atoms Really Have 'States'? (2002) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • Begging the Questions (2000) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    In-physics we are sometimes confronted with situations that obviously raise some questions. But too often we just don't see the obvious questions. Accepted paradigms just blind us. This paper takes note of several example situations and the questions they obviously raise: 1) The "shell" structure of the Periodic Table of the chemical elements is not matched by the "radial quantum number states" offered by Quantum Mechanics. 2) Spectral lines are characterized in part by the so-called Rydberg factor, which involves the square of the naked nuclear charge, showing no effect of nuclear shielding by inner electron shells. 3) In some situations, like charges sometimes seem to cluster together, contrary to prevailing theories about electromagnetics. 4) The so-called "arrow of time" seems to conflict with the apparent time-reversibility of so many equations in physics. Some candidate explanations for such anomalies are developed within the context of simple Galilean, non-relativistic theory.


  • General Considerations about Mass Variation (2000) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • SRT: About That Light in the Beginning (1998) [Updated 5 years ago]

    When Einstein began his construction of Special Relativity Theory in 1905. he used just logic plus the then-known facts about light. At the time. light was deemed describable by Maxwell's equations reduced to a wave-equation. wherein there was a product parameter (epsilon)0(mu)0 that was apparently the same for any observer, and should be interpretable as the inverse square of a wave speed c. Einstein sidestepped the question of what was waving (the aether?) and focused on the speed. thereby arriving at SRT.

    Just a year later. Einstein was beginning to delve into new and previously unanticipated characteristics of light: it's apparently quantum character in black body radiation and in atomic emission and absorption. Apparently, light was not a wave but a particle. The photon was born. Later Einstein recognized photons to be indistinguishable, and participated in the development of Bose-Einstein statistics. He proposed the phenomenon of light amplification by stimulated emission, which led ultimately to the technology of lasers and all their present-day applications in coherent optics.

    Today we know that all light sources are at least a little bit coherent, and we know there are non-local effects in systems involving multiple and entangled photons. There is convincing evidence that light is not a point particle but rather some sort of extended body, within which communication is instantaneous.

    What if all this had been known before the development of SRT? Would things have looked different?


  • Distinct Questions in Relativity Theory (1998) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • The Twins, the Mesons, and the Paradox (1997) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Einstein's special theory of relativity has left us with an enduring topic of concern in its prediction of time dilation. This prediction appears well validated in the apparently slow decay of rapidly moving unstable particles. But the prediction also apparently leads to the well-known ?Twin Paradox?, which confounds ordinary logic. The present paper attempts to shed new light on this subject.


  • A Quantum of Light Shed on Classical Potentials and Fields (1997) [Updated 9 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    Apeiron is a scientific journal devoted to cosmology and fundamental physics. It publishes only convincingly argued, adequately documented papers in English, as well as English translations of historically important texts

  • 'Light' is the Subject, not the Object! (1997) [Updated 5 years ago]

    Is propagating light an infinitely extending wave? Or a collection of compact particles? The conventional twentieth-century answer has been "both": a wave -expanding spherical, plane, or converging spherical, as needed -or a photon bullet, as needed. We know that light emission and absorption apparently come in quanta. This behavior seems inconsistent with a continuous oscillating wave, and that is why we have imagined the photon bullets. But we know also that interference effects occur, and they seem inconsistent with independent photon bullets -which is why we still use the wave model.

    But the truth about light may really be "neither". This paper explores an obvious variation on the existing models: light not as a "thing" (e.g. amplitude, phase, energy), but rather as a "process? (i.e. the propagation process).

    Imagine two steps: a period of expansion/extension, followed by a period of contraction/collapse. Such a model turns out to be extraordinarily rich with implications. All of the familiar features of special relativity theory follow without mystery: apparent clock slowing, length contraction, velocity limitation, etc. In addition, important features of general relativity theory also follow: apparent gravitational effects on clocks, gravitational red shifts, light bending, etc.


  • Finding Absolution for Special Relativity Theory - Part III (1997) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.

  • Finding Absolution for Special Relativity Theory - Part I (1996) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.


  • Finding Absolution for Special Relativity Theory - Part II (1996) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.


  • How Can Spirals Persist? (1995) [Updated 1 decade ago]

    Astrophysics and Space Science 227: 175-186.


  • Special Relativity Theory Aberrated (1994) [Updated 4 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.

  • Discussion Between C. K. Whitney and S. Marinov on Silvertooth's Experiment (1993) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • A New Michelson-Morley Experiment (1992) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Wilbur Silvertooth, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    We have augmented a Michelson-Morley interferometer with additional instrumentation and secured additional measurements of a type not previously reported by other researchers. Where the original Michelson-Morley experiment looked only at the interference between two beams that had traversed the two interferometer arms, we look at the standing-wave interference within one of the arms as well. Assuming that the interferometer is resident in an inertial coordinate frame, special relativity theory predicts nodes spaced /2 apart. Our experiment shows a departure from this expected nodal spacing. The discrepancy is here shown to be consistent with an anisotropy in the speed of light having the form c(theta) = c/[1+(v0/c) cos (theta) ], where c is the usual 3 ? 108 m/s, v0 is about 378 km/s, and theta = 0 lies in a unique direction relative to fixed stars. The apparent v0 is consistent with both the known anisotropy of background cosmic radiation and the believed orbital velocity of the Sun in the Milky Way Galaxy.


  • What's Wrong With Standard Relativistic Fields? (1992) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.

  • A Gedanken Experiment With Relativistic Fields (1991) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Dr. Petr Beckmann in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.

  • If Sagnac and Michelson-Gale, Why Not Michelson-Morley? (1990) [Updated 1 decade ago]
    by Howard C. Hayden, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    It is difficult to find critical work about Einstein's Theory of Relativity in most standard physics journals. Galilean Electrodynamics, founded by the late Petr Beckman in 1989, is a notable exception. Since Einstein's 1905 paper, Relativity has had many critics and although it is widely accepted today, there is still a minority who question the central tenets of Relativity Theory. Galilean Electrodynamics is devoted to publishing high quality scientific papers, refereed by professional scientists, that are critical of Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang theory and other establishment doctrines.


  • Inner Products in Relativistic Field Theory (1989) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • On The Properties of Retarded Coordinates (1989) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Radiative Reaction in Classical Electrodynamics (1989) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Radiative Reaction on Fields (1989) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Manifest Covariance in Relativistic Potential Theory (1988) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • A New Perspective on the Hydrogen Atom (1988) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Harmonics in the Hydrogen Atom (1988) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Multiple States in the Hydrogen Atom (1988) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:
    Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal?s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.

    The Journal will endeavour to reflect the environment in which best research is carried out by providing a stimulating publication outlet for both the expression of ideas and reporting of results, within the rigour of the scientific discipline with which the Journal is concerned, namely Physics. As a dynamic new journal, Physics Essays combines rigorous scientific reporting with freedom to express ideas based on logically sound and well balanced points of view.

    Physics Essays, an international, peer-reviewed journal of impeccable quality, supported and advised by a renowned Editorial Board, has been established as the sole journal to act as the voice of the international physics community in a truly interdisciplinary fashion.


  • Distribution of Stars as Test Particles in a Two-Body Background Field (1987) [Updated 1 decade ago]

  • Compressible Fluid Dynamics Study (1986) [Updated 5 years ago]
    by Jan Peter Roos, Cynthia Kolb Whitney   read the paper:

    The report includes the results of an investigation to identify. promising dynamic field-matter interactions with the scalar velocity potential of vacuum space by using the theory of compressible fluid dynamics. A two-dimensional fluid dynamic field-field interaction matrix of flow singularities was developed. Early in the study the analysis . was shifted from the fluid dynamic non-linear description towards the relativistic nonlinear description. Both deSCriptions were developed in parallel for the qualitative and quantitative determination of non-zero surface integrals. The investigation showed that a non-zero surface integral is to be found in the radiation reaction of a two-body system such as the hydrogen atom. Uncovering an error in the derivation of the Lienard-Wiechert potentials provides the theoretical basis for a mechanism to couple radiation energy from space into matter through rotational torque moments arising from non-linear retardation of the position of the radiation source. This principle will be applied in the construction of proof-of-principle experiments, proposed to be carried out in Phase II.

    The zero point quantum energy fluctuations that appear to explain the energy exchange are still considered by the investigators as a tentative solution for 0 process that can be better described by a theory with a new first principle n-dimensional fundamental framework of mathematical physics in which the presence of energy with a finite signal propagation speed is the first and only condition to develop the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics (see R. E. Var; "On a New Mathematical Framework for Fundamental Theoretical Physics", Foundations of Physics, Vol. 5, No.3., September 1975).

    Physicists have always believed that classical field-matter energy exchange is strictly one-way, fields receiving energy and matter losing it, via radiation. That belief is consistent with the accepted formulation for potentials created by relativistically moving sources. But that formulation has recently been shown to embed an error. Correction of the error allows reverse energy transfer, from fields to matter. Though previously unexpected, this mechanism becomes credible by offering a candidate explanation for certain otherwise mysterious natural phenomena.

    The mechanism behind the reverse energy transfer is relativistic torquing within any interacting multi-body system. The existence of relativistic torquing invites human intervention, to induce controlled energy transfer that can be tapped for human purposes such as propulsion. The design of an engineering system to demonstrate such a function on a laboratory scale is here discussed.

    In summary, the theoretical study of this Phase I effort positively identified one principle for energy extraction from the vacuum space energy density as that of relativistic torquing due to non-linear effects, brought about by retardation of time and position in the language of relativity, with nature's example of the hydrogen atom. Based on this principle two field-matter geometries are identified as promising candidates for Phase II proof-of-principle experimental testing. The expected result of this principle is non-rotational energy if the non-linear torquing energy can be made to exceed dissipative energy effects of the experiment itself.