Traditionally coal, oil and gas, are considered to be biogenic in their origin. However it is acknowledged
that the processes by which fossil fuels evidently formed are not totally understood. Coal and gas are
thought to originate from the organic matter of dead plants (ferns, trees, grasses and phytoplankton), and oil
from dead animal matter (mainly zooplankton). In this context the plants and animals from which fossil
fuels were formed, lived and died 300-400 m.y.a. in primordial swamps for coal and gas, and oceans for oil,
where stagnant water prevented the oxidation and total decomposition of organic matter. Assuming
prevailing anoxic conditions and a depositional basin setting it is then thought that continual deposition and
subsequent burial provided pressure and exposed the confined organic matter to high temperatures. For
example, terrestrial plant material on the bottom of swamps was compacted into peat, and finally into
anthracite by compaction to 10% of the original volume of the peat, and heating to ~200 oC. Bacteria
attacked the cellulose in the plant and phytoplankton cell walls leading to significant biodegradation and
producing methane gas. In the final conventional stage many of the seas receded and left dry land with coal,
oil and gas buried underneath it.
Chemically, coal, oil, and gas are a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly alkanes of various lengths,
with no two deposits chemically identical. Naturally occurring methane gas, CH4, represents the simplest
possible alkane and parent molecule. Longer chains, in the range of C5H12 to C18H38, are the liquid
petroleum form, and the longest, but hydrogen deficient form is the solid coal. Hydrocarbons frequently
contain other elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. The sulfur content in some cases can reach very
Z∞ Space re-examines cosmology, astronomy, relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics upon
the fundamental principle that infinity is the ultimate material actuality. In that context zero, vacuum, or
empty space are nonexistent as physical entities. Space is the infinite source of all mass, accounts for the
repelling ?dark-energy? and the contracting ?dark-matter?, and becomes measurable as ?energy??
traveling, actually unpaired standing waves, and ?matter??paired standing waves, i.e., waving space
itself at the scale invariant constant of 299792458 m/s. A zero mass state cannot physically exist,
because waves and energy without inertia-mass cannot exist. The ?massless? state is the scalar
equilibrium state between the inertial and the elasticity forces in a waving material continuum. Due to its
infinity the inertial resistance of Z∞ space is constantly balanced by its extension and oscillates
constantly at light speed, c. All other media included in, and made of Z∞ space wave for as long as the
force that counteracts their mass-inertia acts on them, and at speeds
A myth could be an allegoric representation of the actual. In the ancient Greek literature a myth the
potential truth of which is not verified by observation, and/or experiment, and/or logic is a para-myth, a
fabricated myth. Below we will discuss some of what we consider para-myths in geology
'Excess Mass Stress Tectonics' - EMST concerns the electromagnetic processes which have been altering low-iron silicates into becoming high-iron silicates, and how this on-going geodynamic and geochemical metamorphosis of Earth is being expressed, in terms of earthquakes, geotectonic, volcanic, and magmatic processes, in the context of a solid, quantized, and expanding Earth.
Z-infinity Space re-examines cosmology, astronomy, quantum mechanics and particle physics upon the fundamental principle that finite does not exist in any physical sense. Space is considered the necessary infinite source of all mass, which becomes measurable, via anisotropic distribution of space by 'particles', which are standing waves, 'waving' space itself. Matter and light are sine waveforms of local anisotropy in the elastic, large-scale isotropic continuum. The elastic continuum is lossless, provides all cosmic material 'mass', accounts for both 'missing-mass' and 'dark-energy', has infinite elasticity to any energy input up to v less than c, and infinite rigidity at v greater than c. Gravity is anisotropic tension within infinite elasticity. Gravity's inverse quantity is 'mass' space density, i.e., anisotropic space distribution results in m and G. Thus E is likewise anisotropy of space, in whatever expressed or potential form. All wave-particles contain a constant quantum of tensional elastic potential, irrespective of wavelength, as per E=hf . The total volume of the potentially observable cosmos is limited by constant speed of light and expansion rate. This observable volume is the 'Optical Bubble'. As linear expansion occurs, the total tensional elastic energy of the cosmos (G), rises proportionally, thus counteracting entropic dissipation, whilst total elastic space density (m), inversely and proportionally decreases, as one. Astronomical Doppler redshifts within Z-infinity Space never exceed z=0.57, all higher components are non-Doppler, attributed to continuous linear rise in frequency of emission of photons, from standing wave 'matter'. Non-Doppler components can be instrumentally measured and differentiated from Doppler components, via amplitude peak:wavelength ratios (P:W) of all photons. Expansion is thus reinterpreted as perfectly linear, and space geometry, perfectly Euclidean. Harmonic relationships between primary natural constants verify Z-infinity Space and confirm absolute absence of finite at any scale of observation.
Questions to answer:
- Is the dominant character of processes inside the Earth reversible or irreversible?
- If irreversibility dominates, is it degrading or upgrading?
- If upgrading, is it a result of one major catastrophic event that happened very early in Earth’s history, or is it an ongoing process and a result of many episodes?
- Is the Earth a Heat Engine (Gravity mechanics) or a Stress Engine(Quantum mechanics)?
Although I am a research scientist in geophysics - seismology, I feel that an attempt to answer fundamental philosophical questions, like: Is the universe finite or infinite? Is Is it static or dynamic? Is it an open or closed system? and so on, will provide some intuitive insights into the incomplete and scarce set of data that scientists have to work with.
Furthermore, I've been impressed since my student years, by the dogmatic and simplistic approach of plate tectonics advocates. I rejected, on philosophical grounds, the perfect equilibrium between input and output of crust. I could not understand how easily the energy deficit of convection cells, of plate movements and of subduction was overlooked.