- Speed of Light in 3-Dimensional Euclidean Space (2013) [Updated 8 years ago]
- The Ritz Ballistic Theory & Adjusting the Speed of Light to c near the Earth and Other Celestial Bodies (2011) [Updated 4 years ago]

- Speed of Light in 3-Dimensional Euclidean Space (2013) [Updated 8 years ago]
The speed of light according to the Special Theory of Relativity has the same value

**C**with respect to any inertial frame of reference in 4-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. An attempt to build an alternative physical model in 3-dimensional Euclidean space brings up a question: in what frame of reference does light move with the speed**C?**Series of experiments and mathematical reasoning suggest that: 1) the speed of a photon emitted by an atom equals to**C**if measured with respect to the atom if the atom is at rest or moving with a constant speed with respect to a 3-dimensional inertial frame of reference; 2) the speed of light acquires the value of a constant**C**near Earth, Sun and other large masses; the energy of the photon depends on the gravitational potential, 3) light has inertial properties. - The Ritz Ballistic Theory & Adjusting the Speed of Light to c near the Earth and Other Celestial Bodies (2011) [Updated 4 years ago]
In 1908 Walter von Ritz suggested that the speed of light is equal to the constant c only when measured relative to the source. Ritz systematically redeveloped Maxwellian electrodynamics bringing it into agreement with this hypothesis. Assuming that c is the speed of light at the output of the light source and that the law of velocity addition from classical mechanics is valid for the case of a moving source, the results of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, the aberration of starlight, and a number of other related experimental results come into agreement. The single objection to the hypothesis at that time was provided by astronomical observations of the motion of binary stars. The Ritz theory came to an end with the work of W. de Sitter (1913) who claimed to have a convincing argument for showing that the hypothesis of Ritz was inconsistent with the results of spectroscopic observations of binary stars. A hidden postulate in de Sitter's argument, however, is that the speed of light propagating from the stars is not affected by anything. To refute de Sitter's argument, it would be sufficient to assume that the speed of light adjusts to the value of c at the vicinity of Earth and other celestial bodies. The authors show that this assumption added to the Ritz hypothesis explains well spectroscopic observations of the binary stars. This combined hypothesis: the Ritz ballistic hypothesis and the adjustment of the speed of light to c near celestial bodies (in particular near the Earth), also explains experiments performed at CERN in 1964. An additional argument in favor of the suggested hypothesis is the derivation of the formula for the transverse Doppler Effect presented in this work.