- Fifth Force (2013) [Updated 7 years ago]
- Physical Time (2012) [Updated 8 years ago]
- Gravity (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Absolutes and Confusion or Absolute Confusion (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Fusion for Earth and Space (2009) [Updated 7 years ago]
- New Time Dependent Gravity Displays Dark Matter and Dark Energy Effects (2008) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Compact Reactor (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Alternate Communications for Space Travel (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Compact Reactor (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Poincare, Einstein and the Aether ? 100 Years Later (2005) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Mechanical Entropy and its Implications (2001) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Using the Hubble Telescope to Determine the Split of a Cosmological Object's Redshift in its Gravitational and Distance Parts (2001) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Energy and Entropy as the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics Entropy (2001) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Thermodynamic Basis for the Constancy of the Speed of Light (1997) [Updated 9 years ago]
- Electric Propulsion/Antigravity (1994) [Updated 9 years ago]
- The Arrow of Time in the Dynamic Theory (1981) [Updated 3 years ago]

- Fifth Force (2013) [Updated 7 years ago]
Some 20 years ago there was considerable research done comparing the gravity felt by a test mass in deep wells, deep mines, deep in an ice pack, and on high towers. The data from this research argued that gravity below the Earth's surface began to deviate from Newtonian while gravity above the Earth's surface showed no deviation. A non-singular gravitational force shows this behaviour. Here we calculate the gravitational force on a test mass outside a sphere with uniform density and the force on a test mass inside a hollow spherical shell. the result of these calculations show that the non-singular force predicts that a test mass below the Earth's surface should be less than the Newtonian gravity while a test mass above the Earth's surface should correspond to the Newtonian prediction.

- Physical Time (2012) [Updated 8 years ago]
Thermodynamics is usually thought of as applying only to microscopic systems requiring the use of statistical methods. Few know of, and fewer yet believe, the proof that Bergmann provided that showed one may not derive the classical laws of thermodynamics from Newtonian mechanics using statistical methods. It has previously been shown that the laws of thermodynamics lead to a mechanical entropy that must seek a maximum for isolated systems. This means that entropy determines the direction of flow for isolated systems. This article will discuss the functional form of entropy as it determines the flow of dynamics for an isolated system. This will display the character of entropy as physical time and will show how this form of physical time depends upon the forces in the law of conservation of energy, how this physical time compares to Einstein's proper time, and how this physical time is only applicable in dynamic systems that are operating under the influence of a force. This means that for isolated systems entropy differs from local time only for those systems with non-zero forces. For kinematic studies physical time is identical to local time.

- Gravity (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
This paper presents a new theory of gravity with the basic premises and fundamental laws of the theory. Then the paper presents some immediate results of the laws and shows how these results lead to an Arrow of Time that has eluded physical theories to date. Isentropic states are then showed to require gauge potentials with specific functional dependences upon space, time and mass. The character of these dependences are then used to compare theoretical predictions with existing experimental data and to discuss new experiments that may be conducted.

- Absolutes and Confusion or Absolute Confusion (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
If absolutes are defined as quantities that remain constant independent of the dynamics due to the laws of nature then space and time may not be absolutes. The laws of nature, such as the thermodynamic laws, are differential equations that relate changes in space with changes in other variables. However, these laws require a limiting velocity that is independent of the force and prevents any force from accelerating something to velocities greater than this limiting velocity. This means that the natural laws require an absolute velocity and space and time are to be defined within this requirement. The special theory of relativity used arguments of synchronicity and light speed to specify how one must transform quantities from one coordinate system to another and uses these transforms to modify the laws to fit the transformations between inertial coordinate systems. The thermodynamic laws require that everyone see the same laws and the same absolute velocity thereby specifying the transformations between all coordinate systems regardless of any motion between the coordinate systems. The decades of writings and discussions concerning whether or not space or time are absolute and whether Einstein's constancy of light should hold, plus discussion of transformations have so confused the study of physics as to put the whole into a state of absolute confusion. This article hopes to present a way out of the confusion.

- Fusion for Earth and Space (2009) [Updated 7 years ago]
The compact reactor concept presented at the STAIF-2007 has the potential to provide clean, safe and unlimited supply of energy for Earth and Space applications. The concept is a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for individual home and space power. The concept also would make it possible for each plant or remote location to have it's own power source, on site, without the need for a connection to the power grid. This would minimize, or eliminate, power blackouts. The concept could replace large fission reactors and fossil fuel power plants plus provide energy for ships, locomotives, trucks and autos. It would make an ideal source of energy for space power applications and for space propulsion.

PACS: 25.60.Pj; 41.20.Cv; 11.15.-q; 13.75.Cs; 12.10.Dm.

- New Time Dependent Gravity Displays Dark Matter and Dark Energy Effects (2008) [Updated 9 years ago]
It is shown that a time dependent gravitational field that is getting weaker with time will produce the effects measured for both the tangential velocity in the arms of spiral galaxies and for the high z supernovas. These results show that the effects that have led to the hypothesis of Dark Matter and Dark Energy may come from the same basic physical phenomena, namely that gravity is getting weaker as a function of time, and not from the existence of exotic matter.

- Compact Reactor (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
*SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL FORUM-STAIF 2007: 11th Conf Thermophys.Applic.in Micrograv.; 24th Symp Space Nucl.Pwr.Propulsion; 5th Conf Hum/Robotic Techn & Vision Space Explor.; 5th Symp Space Coloniz.; 4th Symp New Frontrs & Future Con. AIP Conference Proceedings.*Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date. - Alternate Communications for Space Travel (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
*Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2007), Albuquerque, NM, February 11-15, 2007.*Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to show that a five-dimensional gauge field wherein the fifth dimension is conserved in the same mathematical sense as the conservation of mass embeds a four-dimensional hyper surface into the five dimensional manifold. The equations specifying the geometry of the embedded hyper surface are similar in form to Einstein's field equations of his General Theory of Relativity. These field equations become Einstein's field equations when one takes the fifth dimension to be mass density. This means the predictions of Einstein's General Theory may be achieved in two different ways. One by using Einstein's method and the other by using a five dimensional manifold of space, time and mass density while restricting mass to be conserved. The five dimensional gauge fields associated with these phenomena are converted into a four dimensional curved hyper surface by the conservation of mass. The mathematical equivalence of the two methods provides the justification to seek what predictions might be made considering the five dimensional gauge field wherein the electromagnetic fields are inductively coupled to the gauge gravitational field. This presentation will present the logic showing how Einstein's General Theory of Relativity may be derived from the five dimensional manifold using the conservation of mass. Comparison of predictions of perihelion advance by using the view from the embedded four-dimensional hyper surface and from the five dimensional manifold shows the equivalence of the two methods of viewing physical phenomena. The inductive coupling between the electromagnetic and gravitational fields may be given experimental support by showing that predictions of the Earth's magnetic moment due to its spinning gravitational mass is within 7% of the experimentally measured value. Such an inductively coupling between the gravitational gauge field and the electromagnetic gauge field provides an opportunity to seek predictions of the resulting five dimensional wave equations. Whereas in Maxwellian electromagnetism there are two, coupled, vector wave equations in the five dimensional gauge field there are three, coupled, vector wave equations that are also coupled to a scalar wave equation. The presentation will discuss the resulting transverse and longitudinal solutions to this system of wave equations. It will show that the inductive coupling with the gravitational field provides a very weak gravitational component to the transverse waves. It will also show that the longitudinal wave solutions may be independent of the transverse solutions and that the longitudinal solutions consist of only electric and gravitational vector components with an accompanying scalar wave. Longitudinal electrogravitic waves do not interact with the propagation medium as do transverse waves and make good candidates for space communication. Not only will longitudinal waves pass through intervening material, but they may be made very directive and, thereby, avoid a 1/r2 loss. The presentation will also present an antenna design for converting transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal electrogravitic waves for using current transmitting laser communication equipment and the reciprocal antenna design for converting longitudinal waves back into transverse waves to use current receivers.

11th Conf Thermophys.Applic.in Micrograv.; 24th Symp Space Nucl.Pwr.Propulsion; 5th Conf Hum/Robotic Techn & Vision Space Explor.; 5th Symp Space Coloniz.; 4th Symp New Frontrs & Future Con. AIP Conference Proceedings. - Compact Reactor (2007) [Updated 9 years ago]
Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires

that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics

must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions

between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at subnuclear

separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above

WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium

nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than

specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor

using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and

the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared

to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the

absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by

which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH

reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei

to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the

reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved

to date.PACS: 25.60.Pj; 41.20.Cv; 11.15.-q; 13.75.Cs; 12.10.Dm

Delivered at SPESIF-2007 in Albuquerque, NM.

- Poincare, Einstein and the Aether ? 100 Years Later (2005) [Updated 9 years ago]
Relativity started with Galileo and his motion relative to the stars. Inertia came into the picture with Newton 's laws of motion, as did the notion of motion in the absence of forces. James Clark Maxwell gave the scientific community a lot to think and write about when he fashioned and published his electromagnetic equations in 1873. A community that was, by this time, used to explaining physical phenomena in mechanistic descriptions found it difficult to come to grips with the field type equations Maxwell gave them. This desire for a mechanistic description for the propagation of light gave birth to the notion of a mechanical medium, the ether, in which light might propagate. Experiments were no help in continuing the mechanistic view of the world, as they could find no ether. Measurements of the speed of light with respect to the supposed ether came up with a negative result. Einstein looked at this result very differently than did his peers and took this to mean that the speed of light was a universal constant, no matter how one attempted to measure it. This different viewpoint gave rise, ultimately, to Einstein presenting two theories to the scientific community with the word ?relativity' in their titles.

Now one hundred years after Einstein presented the first of his theories of relativity this article is offered, not to pay tribute only to these contributions of Poincar? and Einstein, but to mark the centenary of the discoveries of 1905 by presenting a critical reconsideration of the ether idea in modern physics, astronomy and cosmology.

- Mechanical Entropy and its Implications (2001) [Updated 3 years ago]
It is shown that the classical laws of thermodynamics require that mechanical systems must exhibit energy that becomes unavailable to do useful work. In thermodynamics, this type of energy is called entropy. It is further shown that these laws require two metrical manifolds, equations of motion, field equations, and Weyl's quantum principles. Weyl's quantum principle requires quantization of the electrostatic potential of a particle and that this potential be non-singular. The interactions of particles through these non-singular electrostatic potentials are analyzed in the low velocity limit and in the relativistic limit. It is shown that writing the two particle interactions for unlike particles allows an examination in two limiting cases: large and small separations. These limits are shown to have the limiting motions of: all motions are ABOUT the center of mass or all motion is OF the center of mass. The first limit leads to the standard Dirac equation. The second limit is shown to have equations of which the electroweak theory is a subset.

An extension of the gauge principle into a five-dimensional manifold, then restricting the generality of the five-dimensional manifold by using the conservation principle, shows that the four-dimensional hypersurface that is embedded within the 5-D manifold is required to obey Einstein's field equations. The 5-D gravitational quantum equations of the solar system are presented.

- Using the Hubble Telescope to Determine the Split of a Cosmological
Object's Redshift in its Gravitational and Distance Parts (2001) [Updated 3 years ago]
The Hubble Telescope should make it possible to separate the redshift of light from any cosmological object into that redshift due to the gravitational potential difference between the emission and reception points and that portion due the distance between these points by comparing the redshifts measured on the Earth's surface to redshifts measured by the Hubble Telescope. This would allow a remapping of the cosmological objects and an increased understanding of gravitational conditions of these objects.

- Energy and Entropy as the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics
Entropy (2001) [Updated 9 years ago]
Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300; CODEN: ENTRFG), an international and interdisciplinary open access journal of entropy and information studies, is published by MDPI online monthly. The unofficial Impact Factor for Entropy for 2009 is 1.400. The first official Impact Factor for Entropy will be announced in middle 2011.

- Thermodynamic Basis for the Constancy of the Speed of Light (1997) [Updated 9 years ago]
*Modern Physics Letters A.*It is shown that the laws of thermodynamics require Einstein's postulate on the constancy of the speed of light. - Electric Propulsion/Antigravity (1994) [Updated 9 years ago]
This article contains regrouped and abbreviated excerpts (causing some text discontinuity) from the electric propulsion study (162 p.) prepared for the Air Force Systems Command at Edwards Air Force Base in California. It was compiled during the period from 21 September 1988 to 30 November 1989 and published in August 1990. The particular excerpts chosen provide some background to the Rynne and Dering experiment also featured in this issue.

- The Arrow of Time in the Dynamic Theory (1981) [Updated 3 years ago]
A newly proposed, and as yet unverified, theory provides new answers to the old questions concerning the symmetry of time in nature. The theory requires an asymmetry in time for systems whose Newtonian or relativistic description is symmetrical. This is accompanied with the prediction that the universe must forever grow older and continually expand and provides new insight on the extreme red shift of quasars.