- A Modified Newtonian Treatment of Gravity (2002) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Neoclassic Treatment of Ground-State Hydrogen - Part II: Spin and Gravitation (2000) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Neoclassic Treatment of Ground-State Hydrogen - Part I: Structure (1999) [Updated 3 years ago]
- An Amended Equation for the Lorentz Force (1994) [Updated 3 years ago]

- A Modified Newtonian Treatment of Gravity (2002) [Updated 3 years ago]
A recently proposed structure of ground-state hydrogen has the atom rotating at the frequency of its magnetic hyperfine transition. In conjunction with the weakest of the three electromagnetic forces given by an amended equation for the Lorentz force, this rotation adequately accounts for the gravitational attraction of ground-state hydrogen atoms. The electromagnetic equation for this attractive force has now been extended, at least empirically, to all atomic matter. According to this treatment, the force of gravity is not precisely a central force, and Newton?s law of universal gravitation must be amended accordingly. The modified Newtonian equation thus obtained has been evaluated by means of the three classical tests used to judge Einstein?s general theory of relativity. On this basis, the modified Newtonian treatment appears to provide a satisfactory alternative to Einstein?s geometric approach.

- Neoclassic Treatment of Ground-State Hydrogen - Part II: Spin and Gravitation (2000) [Updated 3 years ago]
A particle model of atomic hydrogen has been developed as a possible alternative to the currently ac-cepted quantum-mechanical approach. In the present work, the charged-particle motion within the model orbits are shown to generate magnetic and gravitational potentials that lead to the formation of spinning-disc, and thence to rotating-sphere hydrogen structures. The rotation of such structures occurs at the frequency of hydrogen's ground-state magnetic hyperfine transition, and accounts for atomic hydrogen's anomalous g-factor without requiring the intercession of electrons that spin perpetually in the absence of any driving force. Furthermore, and most importantly, this atomic spin is shown to account for the gravitational attraction of hydrogen atoms.

- Neoclassic Treatment of Ground-State Hydrogen - Part I: Structure (1999) [Updated 3 years ago]
A particle model of atomic hydrogen has been developed as a possible alternative to the currently ac-cepted quantum-mechanical approach. In this neoclassic model, the electron is treated as a particle with a linear orbit that passes perpendicularly through the center of a circular proton orbit. In accord with a recently derived version of the Lorentz force equation, the charged-particle motion within such orbits will generate magnetic and gravitational potentials that lead to the formation of spinning-disc, and thence to rotating-sphere hydrogen structures.

- An Amended Equation for the Lorentz Force (1994) [Updated 3 years ago]
The exactness of the experimentally derived Lorentz force equation has seemingly been confirmed by derivations from Minkowski's four-vector force and from Newton's second law of motion. Both types of derivation, however, entail somewhat questionable assumptions. In the first type, there is the rather arbitrary requirement that all laws of nature must be expressed in covariant form; in the second type, it is assumed that the relative velocities of inertial coordinate systems must be mathematically treated as constraints. If, however, this mathematical constancy assumption is replaced by a less abstract view of the physical nature of constant velocities, an amended version of the Lorentz equation is obtained. In this amended version the electric force is found to be identical with that given by the original equation, while the magnetic force only differs by a simple factor that reduces to unity at ordinary velocities. A major difference between the two equations is provided by the presence in the amended version of a third term that may account for the gravitational force.