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James Carter
local time: 2019-09-19 14:54 (-07:00 DST)
James Carter (Abstracts)
Titles Abstracts Details
  • Two Experimental Measurements to Define the Laws of Gravitational Force and Motion (2017) [Updated 2 years ago]

    The force of Earth's gravity is measured to come from within its own atoms and not from some infinite gravitational medium far beyond its surface.

    Gravity is presented here as a principle of measurement and not a "theory". Conclusions of measurement are used to explain the dynamics of gravity and no metaphysical assumptions are made prior to measurement other than assuming the accuracy of measuring instruments. Two simple measurements can be made to easily illustrate the gravity principle in terms metaphysical gravitational theories. The first measurement quantifies the true natural dynamics of gravitational force and motion that is common to all gravitational theories. The second test measures the true direction and velocity of gravitational motion and the results can be used to either verify or falsify all four of the basic classes of gravity theories. The first test uses accelerometers to measure the upward force at Earth's surface and atomic clocks to measure the gravitational motion produced by both gravitational force and the inertial acceleration of rockets. The second gravity cannon experiment answers the age old paradox of what really happens when a gold ball is dropped into a bottomless pit. This second test is an opposite but complementary measurement of the first, in that it measures downward gravitational deceleration that balances measured upward gravitational acceleration. Whereas, the first test uses atomic clocks and accelerometers to measure gravitational motion and force at all points above Earth's center, the gravity cannon uses a video camera clock to measure gravitational motion and force at Earth's center.


  • The True Direction of Gravitational Force (2011) [Updated 2 years ago]
    by James Carter   read the paper:

    The fundamental determination to be made at the foundation of any theory of gravity is the choice that must be made for the direction of the gravitational force. Galileo, Newton, Le Sage and Einstein all chose to believe that the direction of the gravitational force pointed down. Here they just followed the conventional wisdom shared by almost everyone at the time. Galileo was the first to experiment with gravitational force. Newton discovered that force produces acceleration, Le Sage proposed that gravitational force came from otherwise invisible particles raining down from outer space and Einstein offered the Equivalence Principle as the reason to believe that the gravitational force pointed down. There does not even appear to be any evidence that these gravity theorists ever considered that the true direction gravitational force might be just what we measure it to be. The problem is, no one has ever been able to devise a physical measurement that could show the direction of gravitational force to be down. It can be shown with any simple accelerometer that the only possible direction of the gravitational force is up and not down. If we look at gravity in terms of its true direction of force as being up instead of down, then a whole new picture of gravity emerges as just a simple mechanical phenomenon instead of a magical and infinite force field.


  • A Case for Absolute Motion: The Dual Effects of Both Gravity and Absolute Motion on the Rate of Clocks (2011) [Updated 2 years ago]
    by James Carter   read the paper:

    The photons the 2.7˚ Cosmic Background Radiation can provide and absolute rest frame in which all photons move at exactly c, as well as a frame in which all clocks run at the same rate. Time is usually thought of either as a separate entity that either exists independently from mass and space or as an integral part of an entity called space-time. Although many different kinds of clocks have been devised for measuring the passage of time, a careful look at them reveals that there are, in fact, two different arrows of time that are quite distinct from one another and can even be said to flow at different rates. It is shown that every clock records that passage of either inertial time or gravitational time. Several experiments demonstrate that the rates of inertial clocks are affected by both changes in motion and changes in gravity. Thought experiments are presented to show that the effects on the rate of clocks from both changes in motion and changes in gravity are caused by changes in the mass of the clock. The conclusion is reached that there is really no physical entity called time that is more than a metaphysical idea that is used to quantify different types of motion.


  • The Evolution of Matter Through Cosmological Time (2010) [Updated 8 years ago]
    by James Carter   read the paper:

    This history of the universe is based on the single assumption that the mass of the electron
    gradually decreases over time. Except for the exceptions produced by this assumption, all of the other
    well established physical laws and constants of the standard model of physics remain intact. Near the
    beginning of the universe, the proton and the electron had identical masses and were a Primordial Matter/
    Antimatter Pair. After a chain annihilation of about 256 cycles, the electron's mass had decreased
    to the point where it could no longer annihilate with the proton. This left the 2256 electrons and protons
    that we have in the universe today. At this stage, protons and electrons could combine to form neutrons
    but not atoms. Long after, at the point where the electron became small enough to couple with a proton
    into a hydrogen atom, the neutrons began to decay and hydrogen atoms began to emit large quantities
    of photons. This initial burst of photons had the same wavelengths as the 2.7˚ Cosmic Blackbody Radiation
    spectrum of today. Since this very cold time, the temperature for hydrogen radiation has increased
    from 2.7˚ K to about 3000˚ K. The rate of the electron's gradual mass decrease can be determined by
    measuring the Hubble Constant. In the past, when the electron had more mass, the atomic spectra from
    distant galaxies had longer wavelengths and thus appears red shifted to us today. As the electron loses
    mass, and the atomic spectra heats up, the volume of atoms decreases. Heavy elements at the earth's
    center lose volume more slowly than the light elements in the earth's crust. It is this effect that drives
    plate tectonics and causes the continents to separate.


  • The Dual Effects of Both Gravity and Absolute Motion on the Rate of Clocks (2010) [Updated 2 years ago]

    The photons the 2.7˚ Cosmic Background Radiation can provide and absolute rest frame in which all photons move at exactly C, as well as a frame in which all clocks run at the same rate. Time is usually thought of either as a separate entity that either exists independently from mass and space or as an integral part of an entity called space-time. Although many different kinds of clocks have been devised for measuring the passage of time, a careful look at them reveals that there are, in fact, two different arrows of time that are quite distinct from one another and can even be said to flow at different rates. It is shown that every clock records that passage of either inertial time or gravitational time. Several experiments demonstrate that the rates of inertial clocks are effected by both changes in motion and changes in gravity. Thought experiments are presented to show that the effects on the rate of clocks from both changes in motion and changes in gravity are caused by changes in the mass of the clock. The conclusion is reached that there is really no physical entity called time that is more than a metaphysical idea that is used to quantify different types of motion.


  • How the Gradual Change in the Mass of the Electron has Driven the Evolution of the Universe from its Very Beginning (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]

    The unfolding of events in this history of the universe is based solely on a single fundamental assumption. This assumption is that the mass of the electron relative to the proton has been gradually decreasing since the beginning of the universe. With just this single change in the standard model theories of physics and chemistry, the evolution of the universe can be understood in a sequence of events that is somewhat similar to the Big Bang Theory, but without many of its numerous paradoxes. In this account of the creation, there is no initial singularity appearing from nowhere, there is no disparity between matter and antimatter, and the red shift of the Hubble Constant is a measure of the rate that the mass of the electron decreases. The measured red shift disparities that have been found in distant supernova observations can be explained in terms of a decreasing electron mass without the need of any "dark energy". The radiation dynamics of the evolving hydrogen atom requires that when it first formed, its initial radiation burst be at the Cosmic Blackbody Radiation temperature of 2.7 K. It also predicts a slight decrease in entropy that has caused the universe to warm and not cool from its initial temperature of 2.7 K. The evolving mass of the electron causes the size of the heavy elements to increase relative to the lighter elements. As the heavy elements in the the earth's interior expand faster that the light elements in its crust, the continents are cracked and pulled apart like dried paint on an expanding balloon. As we follow this gradual transformation of electron mass back into time, we find that today's universe began in a "big bang like" event at the point in their evolution when the electron and proton had exactly the same mass.


  • The Dual Effects of Both Gravity and Absolute Motion on the Rate of Clocks (2008) [Updated 8 years ago]
    by James Carter   read the paper:

    Time is usually thought of either as a separate entity that exists independently from mass and space, or as an integral part of an en-tity called space-time. Although many different kinds of clocks have been devised for measuring the passage of time, a careful look at them reveals that there are, in fact, two different arrows of time that are quite distinct from one another, and can even be said to flow at different rates. Every clock that has ever been invented measures either inertial time or gravitational time. The GPS satellites demon-strate that the rates of inertial clocks are affected both by changes in motion and changes in gravity. Thought experiments are pre-sented to show the effects of motion induced time dilation on these two different types of clocks and the actual mechanics of these changes in the rates of clocks is revealed. The conclusion is reached that there is really no physical entity called ?time' that is more than a metaphysical idea that is used to quantify different types of motion.


  • The Evolution of the Universe (2008) [Updated 2 years ago]

    The classical blackbody radiation curve of the 2.7 Cosmic Background Radiation is so perfect that Big Bang cosmologists have had a very difficult time reconciling it with both the laws of physics and the concept of an expanding universe.


  • A New Gravitational Constant (2004) [Updated 6 years ago]
    by James Carter   read the paper:

    The Principle of Equivalence states that there is no way to measure the difference between the linear acceleration produced by a constant dynamic force and the constant upward acceleration of gravity measured at the earth's surface. If we thus carry this principle to its most logical conclusion we must assume that gravity and inertia are not just equal but identical. This leads us to a simple and easily understood mechanism for gravity that is completely both local and mechanical. We replace the Principle of Equivalence with the Principle of Gravitational Expansion in which the cause of gravity is simply a constant expansion of the dimensions of matter and photons. This leads to a new gravitational constant Go that is a constant velocity instead of an attraction, an acceleration or a curvature of space-time. This gives us a new interpretation of General Relativity that resolves the paradoxes surrounding gravitational time dilation, the Pound-Rebka experiment, the speed of gravity, orbital revolution and the formation of both galaxies and atmospheric clouds.


  • The 2.7K Cosmic Background Radiation Within an Expanding Universe (2003) [Updated 2 years ago]

  • The Gradual Decrease in the Mass of the Electron and its Role in the Evolution of the Universe (2002) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • Newtonian Electrodynamics (2001) [Updated 2 years ago]

  • Why Einstein Was Wrong (2001) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • The Paradox of Changing Time Between Orbiting Clocks and Falling Clocks (2000) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • The Cosmological Blue Shift (2000) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • Photons and the Change in Mass of Moving Bodies (1999) [Updated 2 years ago]

    The fundamental, yet often unstated. premise upon which the Special Theory of Relativity rests is the idea that the photon has no mass. This is a purely metaphysical assumption that is not confirmed by any experiment. All measurements of mass, energy and photons show the photon to have an energy of E=MC2 and a mass of M=Sqrt(E/C2). The apparent conflict between these two equations is resolved by simply ignoring the second and declaring that photons, unlike any other bodies, are "pure" energy and have no mass. This faulty logic then leads to the conclusions that photons are created from the destruction of mass and that the energy used to accelerate a body increases its mass. However, a more rigorous interpretation of photon dynamics shows that mass is a universal constant and is never converted into photons and is never increased by the acceleration of bodies.


  • The Universe Began as a Great Fire, Not a "Big Bang" (1999) [Updated 1 year ago]

    The assumption is made that the universe began not as an exploding singularity but as the result of the joining together of two separate entities. After this initial union, a long series of division occurred from which the matter present in the universe today emerged. As this very orderly process of creation is examined in detail, many of the universe's mysteries can be easily explained. Among these are:

    • The lack of antimatter in the universe.
    • The 183611 mass ratio between the proton and electron.
    • The enormous energy of some cosmic rays.
    • The new explanation of the cosmological red shift.
    • The origins of the powerful gamma ray bursts.
    • The origin of the 2.7K Cosmic Background Radiation.
    • A new explanation of quasar red shifts.
    • The identity and meaning of the gravitational constant.

  • Gravitational Time Versus Inertial Time (1999) [Updated 2 years ago]

  • The Apocalytic Photon (1998) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • Just Which Equivalence Principle Do You Believe In? (1998) [Updated 2 years ago]

    The Pound-Rebka experiment is often presented as an experimental proof of the Equivalence Principle. However, careful examination of this experiment reveals five different ways that its results can be interpreted. While all are compatible with the Equivalence Principle. each offers a distinct view of both gravity and the nature of the photons being measured. As a result, the Equivalence Principle has a different meaning and definition fur each interpretation. After each of these five possibilities has been presented, the listeners will be asked the following questions for discussion. Does anyone have a different explanation of this experiment? Which Equivalence Principle do you believe in? Since only one of these explanations can be correct, does anyone know of an experimental method by which one of these could be shown to be superior over the others and thus established as the true reality?


  • The Radiation Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom and the Structure of the Nucleus (1998) [Updated 2 years ago]

    A mechanical model for the hydrogen atom is proposed in which the electron and proton are physically connected to one another by a series of torus shaped structures called circlons. Photons are produced at the interface when a circlon from the proton combines with a circlon from the electron. The atom's energy is contained within the stationary orbital motion of these components in which the circlons rotate on their axes but the electron does not revolve around the proton. A new orbital constant (Y) is proposed which is used to calculate the complete hydrogen radiation spectrum without the use Planck's constant (h). The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is used to define the size of the circlon rather than the uncertainty of the electron's position. At a deeper level, stationary orbital motion is the process by which nuclear interactions occur. The nuclear structure of hydrogen and helium is examined and then the precise step by step process is shown by which all isotopes of the known elements are constructed. Physical models are offered to depict the structure of the most common isotope of each element.


  • The New Gravitational Constant (1997) [Updated 2 years ago]

  • On the Motion of all Photons within a Single Absolute Inertial Reference (1997) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • E = mc2 Fallacies and the Non-Conversion of Mass to Energy (1997) [Updated 8 years ago]

    The formula E = mc2 has long been interpreted to mean that the rest mass of matter could be converted into the energy of massless photons and that the kinetic energy inherent in the motion of bodies of mass increases the mass of those bodies. The validity of this idea rests on the arbitrary assumption that the photon has no mass. However, a classical interpretation of photon experiments would identify the photon as a particle of mass. Experiments show that photons have both energy and momentum and each of these is associated with the motion of mass. A careful examination of these experiments will show that energy and mass are separate and distinct parameters and that one is never converted to the other.


  • Explaining the Red Shift in a Non-Expanding Universe (1996) [Updated 2 years ago]

  • Dark Matter vs. the Equivalence Principle. A Proposed Definitive Experiment to Either Establish or Negate the Existence of Dark Matter (1996) [Updated 8 years ago]

  • Cosmology Without the Principle of Equivalence... (1994) [Updated 8 years ago]