- Planck's Constant From Hubble's Constant: Cosmological Origin of Terrestrial ZPF & Zitterbewegung (1999) [Updated 8 years ago]
- The Physical Basis of Zero-Point Energy? (1998) [Updated 8 years ago]

- Planck's Constant From Hubble's Constant: Cosmological Origin of Terrestrial ZPF & Zitterbewegung (1999) [Updated 8 years ago]
In a Newtonian model of

*e.g.*the Bohr atom, it is physicallyto omit the aggregate forces from all electrostatic charges (monopole radiation [with or without retarded potentials]) in the visible universe. Though the standard hypotheses or cosmic homogeneity/isotropy imply such forces have a__incorrect__*zero-mean,*they also have a**non-zero***variance!*It is known since Fenyes (1952) & Nelson (1967, 1985) that Schrodinger's Equation is derivable from Newtonian mechanics, in(__Stochastic Mechanics__**SM**) as a**neo-classical**alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation of QM. In SM, the forces acting are augmented by a zero-mean, non-zero-variance*background-field*process, but (although Nelson remarks that**"no physical system ... is truly isolated"**) no plausible candidate for theof__source__**mutual energy transfer which averages out to zero"**and is thus**"responsible for ... quantum fluctuations"**has hitherto been identified. Here it isthat the__proved__from all of the universe's quarks & electroncs provide a__cosmoc monopole radiations____quantitatively adequate__source of Schrodinger's micro-physical*zitterbewegungen,*thereby explaining both the necessity of a statistical treatment of microphysical "jittering" and rendering mistaken/irrelevant the oft-noted "weirdness" of reality alleged by Copenhagen. For non-relativistic motions, [] in SM, where*M,*and*x,*have classical Newtonian significance, and where if the mass*F**M*carries one electron charge, the force-vectoris the sum of the electrostatic forces of all quarks & electrons in a sphere of radius*F**R*1_{o}=*Astronomical Unit*(AU), while**w**(t)*m*] and^{2}- sec*h*is a scale-factor having units of angular momentum. Specifically, ifis the*E**expectation*operator and [] the Dirac delta-function,is an identity 3-matrix with units 1/[m2 - sec]. Summing the aggregate cosmic forces from outside said sphere arising from charge-sources of mean number density []**E{W(t)}**0 and__=__**E**[], where**I**_{3}*particles/m*it is easy to compute (from a convergent integral) that^{3 }[]

where

*e*denotes the electron charge and [] the permittivity of free space and [] a unit-intensity scale-factor of dimensions (m^{5/2}.sec). Now [] per*m*^{3 }from^{ }standard physical cosmology, where [] denotes the usual*critical density*ratio, and where*H*denotes the value, at the present epoch, in_{o }*(km/sec)/Mpc, of*To test validity of the preceding derivation, note that identifying**Hubble's constant.***h*withyields [] = 0.0693, in relatively excellent agreement with the latest observational data. The result renders the Copenhagen interpretation untenable, vindicates Einstein's surmise that "Goe does not play dice," and demonstrates the ontological*Plank's constant*(& physical origin) of__reality__**non-virtual***Zero-Point Fluctuations***(****ZPF***).* - The Physical Basis of Zero-Point Energy? (1998) [Updated 8 years ago]