Abstracts Details

Modern physics has many problems with infinities, dark matter, dark energy, black holes, too many adjustable parameters, and logical inconsistencies. Since modern science poses as an authority more sure than the world's major religions, it seems appropriate to evaluate the truth of modern physics from the perspective of logic and metatheory. Logic reveals that the postulates or axioms of modern physics are based on assumptions known by experiment to be false. These assumptions lead to conclusions that are in disagreement with common sense. Metatheory (the theory of theories based on logic) gives logical arguments that all the current major theories of modern physics are incomplete and incompatible with each other. From metatheory the simplest solution that completes modern science and removes the incompatibilities in modern science is to properly complete electrodynamics such that the theories of Maxwell's electrodynamics, the Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics, Einstein's special and general relativity theories, and the standard model of elementary particles are replaced by a single more comprehensive version of electrodynamics.

This paper reviews the history of the structure and symmetry of the universe from Ptolemy to the present time. The derivation of a new improved electrodynamic force law is reviewed. Improved versions of the forces of gravity and inertia are derived from this improved electrodynamic force. Evidence is presented that these improved versions of the electrodynamic force, the gravitational force, and the force of inertia are superior to all previous versions. Then inductive arguments are given that the improved version of electrodynamics is the universal force. This universal force challenges previous notions of the structure and symmetry of the universe. The proposed universal force has a unique symmetry which is a combination of spherical and chiral symmetry. Evidence is then presented that all entities on all size scales in the universe have this symmetry. This includes elementary particles, atoms, nuclei, molecules, crystals, plant leaves and flowers and seed pods, orbits of planets and moons in our solar system, the structure of the Milky Way galaxy, and the structure of the universe as a whole. The proposed universal force views the universe as controlled 100% by electrodynamic forces and currents. The universe has a center with all galaxies arranged in quantized bands about the center following Stanly Dermot's version of Bode's Law. Stars are like streetlights along the networks of electrical current in the universe.

A new version of the electrodynamic force, derived from a more perfect union of the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods, has explained more electrodynamic data including radiation and radiation reaction than previous versions based on Maxwells equations and Einsteins Special Relativity Theory. It has given rise to the constraint that all elementary particles consist of closed charge loop structures. A new three-dimensional electrodynamic theory of elementary particles has resulted which explains more elementary particle data than the Standard Model of relativistic quantum electrodynamics which uses many adjustable fundamental constants of unknown origin. The new electrodynamic force law has been used to derive a new improved force of gravity and a new improved force of inertia. These improved versions of the force of gravity and inertia explain more phenomena, including mass and the quantization of gravity, than previous versions. The conjecture has been made that this new version of the electrodynamic force law is the universal force law. This candidate for the universal force has a unique symmetry which is a combination of spherical and chiral symmetry. Evidence is presented that elementary particles, atoms, nuclei, molecules, crystals, flowers, plant leaves, solar systems, galaxies, and the universe as a whole exhibit this symmetry. Thus the symmetry of nature on all size scales provides a qualitative confirmation of the universal electrodynamic force law.

Euclid and the ancient Greeks were among the first to define Natural Philosophy with its dependence on geometry. They defined the Law of Cause and Effect requiring local contact forces, plus they invented the Axiomatic method to confirm and present universal truth. Later Isaac Newton and others defined the Empirical method of pursuing natural philosophy to discover new axioms, but the method ignored the question of truth. The empirical approach led to concepts like mass, non-local action-at-a-distance forces, point-particle approximations, etc. which man's common sense knew were not true. The success of the empirical approach in mathematically describing nature led to the development of the existential philosophy under which the universe did not function according to logic and common sense. Under the reign of this philosophy quantum mechanics and relativity theory were developed. Some natural philosophers rebelled against existentialism and introduced the philosophy of structuralism in which meaning is derived from the internal structure of systems. Scientists in the fields of biology, chemistry, and physics did not want to participate in the structural reformation, because they liked their existential theories. So they introduced the Postmodern Philosophy in which each field or discipline in science has its own definition of truth and reality. The university became the multiversity with no universal standards for truth. Work on the universal electrodynamic force shows that the approach of structural philosophy was correct. According to the universal force the same structures are repeated over and over again on various size scales with a strong dependence on combinatorial Euclidean geometry.

From the derived universal classical electrodynamic contact force law for finite-size elastic particles the force of gravity is identified as a statistical residual force of the fourth order term in v/c due to the vibration of neutral electric dipoles consisting primarily of atomic electrons and nuclear protons plus polarized vibrating neutrons in the nucleus. The gravitational force is calculated and found to be a relativistic version of the customary radial term of Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation plus a new non-radial term. From the radial term the gravitational mass is defined in terms of electrodynamic parameters. The non-radial term gives rise to an (**R ^{.}V**)

**R**

**x**(

**R x V**) force that causes the orbits of the planets about the sun to spiral about a circular orbit giving the appearance of an elliptical orbit tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun with periods in agreement with Bode's Law. The vibrational mechanism causing the gravitational force decays over time giving rise to the cosmic background radiation plus Hubble's Law for red shifts versus distance due to gravitational red shifting. Halton Arp's discovery of quasars bound to galaxies with significantly different red shifts is explained in terms of the younger quasar galaxy's neutral electric dipole vibrations having decayed for a shorter period of time than those of the older and larger associated galaxy. The decay of gravity also explains Tifft's measured decay of the magnitude of red shifts over time and the high velocity of stars in the spiral arms of galaxies.

A classical universal electrodynamic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived in a proper axiomatic fashion by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Ampere's generalized law, Faraday's law, and Lenz's law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electrodynamic force law incorporates the effects of the self fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It satisfies Newton's 3rd Law, conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach's Principle. Hooper's experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. These field extensions of the charges in the universe physically define the fabric of space or the ether of General Relativity theory and Newton's Universal Gravitation Force. The Lorentz force is shown to be derived from Galilean invariance instead of Lorentz invariance. The derived force law has a combination of spherical and chiral symmetry which is experimentally observed in the structure of matter on all size scales including elementary particles, nuclei, atoms, molecules, crystals, solar system, galaxies, and the structure of the observable universe as a whole. This universal electrodynamic force law appears to be superior (theoretically and experimentally) to previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction.

Correspondence on the New Solar System Force. In this paper, Joseph Smulsky comments on the new solar system force as described by Charles Lucas in the previous issue of Foundations of Science, Volume 13, Number 4, November, 2010. Smulsky?s letter appears first and is followed by a reply from Lucas.

Euclid?s rigorous axiomatic method of deriving theorems/theories is reviewed as well as Newton?s less rigorous empirical scientific method. Then the method of Maxwell is introduced showing a partial combination of the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods. Finally the union of the axiomatic and empirical scientific method is perfected to obtain an improved version of the electrodynamic force law capable of replacing the original electric force law and magnetic force law. The inclusion of the finite size of charged particles plus the conservation of energy and Newton?s 3rd Law as embedded in Lenz?s Law appear to be capable of enhancing the electrodynamic force law and the equations of electrodynamics such that there is no longer a role for Einstein?s Special Relativity Theory in electrodynamics.

This paper describes the chiral symmetry of the universal electrodynamic force law. This symmetry can be observed on all size scales from the smallest elementary particle to the structure of the universe as a whole. It is found in inanimate snow flakes and living things, such as organic molecules, leaf patterns, seed patterns, snail shells, etc. The effect of chiral symmetry in nature is shown using pictures. Even the concept of beauty in nature appears to be based primarily on chiral symmetry.

Pari Spolter has empirically confirmed the existence of a force F ∝ RV^{2} in our solar system, where R = planet semi-major orbital radius and V = planet semi-major orbital radius velocity. This dominant force term is accurate to 5 significant figures and determines the orbit of every planet, moon, and satellite in the solar system. Excel spreadsheets of the solar system data are presented along with graphical displays showing the quality and accuracy of the data fit. When Spolter's force is compared with the axiomatically derived universal electrodynamic force law, this new force is found to be represented in the 3rd and 4th terms of the universal force. (The 1st and 2nd terms represent the relativistic-like Coulomb force, the relativistic-like force of inertia, and the relativistic-like force of gravity.) The condition for stable orbits in the solar system is found to be due to a dynamic balance of all four terms in the universal force law. Thus Spolter's work contributes to the confirmation of all the terms in the axiomatically derived electrodynamic force law. The universal force law shows that previous extensions of linear forces to circular motion are theoretically invalid in that they miss some of the v^{2}/c^{2} terms and the cross vector terms R x (R x V) and R x (R x A) which give the big picture of the solar system where the motion of planets about the sun is on the surface of a toroid centered on the equatorial plane of the sun with a combination of circular motions, i.e. one around the toroid and the other around the cross section of the toroid. Finally the universal electrodynamic force law is expected to produce quantum-like effects in the solar system, such as Bode's Law, due to the balance of force terms as the condition for stability or resonance.

The force of gravity is shown to be a small average residual force due to the fourth order terms in v/c of the derived universal electrodynamic contact force between vibrating neutral electric dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of atoms. The derived gravitational force has the expected radial term plus a new non-radial term. From the radial term the gravitational mass can be defined in terms of electrodynamic parameters. The non-radial term causes the orbits of the planets about the sun to spiral about a circular orbit giving the appearance of an elliptical orbit tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun and the quantization of the orbits as roughly described by Bode's law. The vibrational mechanism that causes the gravitational force is shown to decay over time giving rise to numerous phenomena, including the expansion of the planets (including the earth) and moons in our solar system, the cosmic background radiation, Hubble's red shifts versus distance (due primarily to gravitational red shifting), Tifft's quantized red shifts (Bode's law on a universal scale), Tifft's measured rapid decay of the magnitude of red shifts over time, the Tulley-Fisher relationship for luminosity of spiral galaxies, the unexpected high velocities of the outer stars of spiral galaxies, and Roscoe's observed quantization of the luminosity and size (Bode's law) of 900 spiral galaxies. Arguments are given that this derived law of gravity is superior to Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation (F = Gm_{1}m_{2} / r^{2}) and Einstein's General Relativity Theory (G_{?v }= ? 8?G/c^{2} T_{?v}).

*Nuclear Science and Engineering*, 161: 255-256 (2009). Nuclear engineers are well aware of the importance of the closed nuclear shell ?magic numbers? to nuclear engineering. Magic numbers are responsible for double-hump fission curves, the existence of delayed neutrons, and for xenon poisoning and xenon-induced power oscillations in reactors. Engineers are also aware of the binding energy per nucleon curve, and the fact that fusion is energetically possible for low-A nuclides while fission and alpha decay are energetically possible for high-A nuclides. All of this information came from experimental data. The magic numbers were inferred by noting discontinuities in nuclear systematic studies.1 The binding energy data were qualitatively fit by the semiempirical mass equation, which was an attempt to combine the liquid drop model and the quantized nuclear shell model. For more than 40 years, no theory was put forward that could quantitatively explain why all of these ideas worked...

Many have said that the twentieth century science was dominated by Maxwellian electrodynamics, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Common Sense Science has raised two concerns about these theories.

First, CSS points out that Maxwellian electrodynamics, relativity theory and quantum theory stand upon an incorrect model of the atom or charged particle. Specifically, are electrons (and other charged particles) mathematical points or small spinning units of charge? It seems perplexing to think that physical properties can be modeled by such radically different (physical?) concepts, but perhaps that accounts for the enormous complexity and non-classical notions in relativity theory and quantum theory.

Quantum theory obviously is impacted by the difference between mathematical points and spinning units of charge. On the other hand relativity theory is concerned with electric and magnetic fields, where the high speed interactions of charges and fields are impacted by the difference between points and spinning units of charge.

A review of Newton?s Principia shows his dependence on his Existence Theorem for absolute space and time in order to explain the force of inertia and the centrifugal force in terms of absolute coordinates. A review of the history of Einstein?s General Theory of Relativity reveals his failure to establish the basis of inertia and the centrifugal force in terms of relative coordinates as Mach had envisioned. In this work the force of inertia, including the centrifugal force, is derived from the universal electrodynamic force law based on relative coordinates. From the electrodynamic perspective the inertial force is an average residual force between vibrating neutral electric dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of atoms. The inertial mass is derived and shown to be equal to the derived gravitational mass resulting from the same universal force law. The vibrational mechanism for both gravitational and inertial mass causes the magnitude of both masses to decay over time. The derived electrodynamic inertial force has a second term, a non-radial R x (R x A) term, which describes certain observed non-Newtonian inertial gyroscopic motions. Arguments are made that this derived law of inertia is superior to both Newton?s Law of Inertia (F = ma) and Einstein?s field equations of General Relativity Theory, because (1) it is properly based on local contact forces instead of unphysical action-at-a-distance forces, (2) it is based on forces between finite-size particles instead of imaginary point particles, (3) it is based on relative coordinates instead of fictitious absolute space coordinates, (4) it is derived from a universal force law, (5) it explains the centrifugal force as a piece of the inertial force, (6) it is simpler and does not need mass as a fundamental quantity, (7) it explains the apparent equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, (8) it contains a new non-radial R x (R x A) term that describes additional observed phenomena not previously explained by any theory of inertia, and (9) it contains relativistic type v/c corrections for high velocity.

A review of Newton's Principia shows his dependence on his Existence Theorem for absolute space and time in order to explain the force of inertia and the centrifugal force in terms of absolute coordinates. A review of the history of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity reveals his failure to establish the basis of inertia and the centrifugal force in terms of relative coordinates as Mach had envisioned. In this work the force of inertia, including the centrifugal force, is derived from the universal electrodynamics force law based on relative coordinates. From the electrodynamics perspective the inertial force is an average residual force between vibrating neutral electric dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of atoms. The inertial mass is derived and shown to be equal to the derived gravitational mass resulting from the same universal force law. The vibrational mechanism for both gravitational and inertial mass causes the magnitude of both masses to decay over time. The derived electrodynamics inertial force has a second term, a non-radial R x (R x A) term, which describes certain observed non-Newtonian inertial gyroscopic motions. Arguments are made that this derived law of inertia is superior to both Newton's Law of Inertia (F = ma) and Einstein's field equations of General Relativity Theory, because (1) it is properly based on local contact forces instead of unphysical action-at-a-distance forces, (2) it is based on forces between finite-size particles instead of imaginary point particles, (3) it is based on relative coordinates instead of fictitious absolute space coordinates, (4) it is derived from a universal force law, (5) it explains the centrifugal force as a piece of the inertial force, (6) it is simpler and does not need mass as a fundamental quantity, (7) it explains the apparent equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, (8) it contains a new non-radial R x (R x A) term that describes additional observed phenomena not previously explained by any theory of inertia, and (9) it contains relativistic type v/c corrections for high velocity.

The force of gravity is shown to be a small average residual force due to the fourth order terms in v/c of the derived universal electrodynamic contact force between vibrating neutral electric dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of atoms. The derived gravitational force has the expected radial term plus a new non-radial term. From the radial term the gravitational mass can be defined in terms of electrodynamic parameters. The non-radial term causes the orbits of the planets about the sun to spiral about a circular orbit giving the appearance of an elliptical orbit tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun and the quantization of the orbits as roughly described by Bode's law. The vibrational mechanism that causes the gravitational force is shown to decay over time giving rise to numerous phenomena, including the expansion of the planets (including the earth) and moons in our solar system, the cosmic background radiation, Hubble's red shifts versus distance (due primarily to gravitational red shifting), Tifft's quantized red shifts (Bode's law on a universal scale), Tifft's measured rapid decay of the magnitude of red shifts over time, the Tulley-Fisher relationship for luminosity of spiral galaxies, the unexpected high velocities of the outer stars of spiral galaxies, and Roscoe's observed quantization of the luminosity and size (Bode's law) of 900 spiral galaxies. Arguments are given that this derived law of gravity is superior to Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation (F = Gm_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}) and Einstein's General Relativity Theory (G_{?v} = ?8?G/c^{2} T_{?v}).

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Ampere?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation and radiation reaction. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-adistance. The Lorentz force is derived from Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamics, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.

A review of Newton's Principia shows the significance of his Existence Theorem for absolute space and time in order to explain the force of inertia and the centrifugal force. A review of the history of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity reveals the failure to establish the basis of inertia and the centrifugal force in terms of relative coordinates as Mach had envisioned. In this work the force of inertia including the centrifugal force is based on relative coordinates. It is shown to be an average residual force due to the acceleration terms in the derived universal electrodynamic force between vibrating neutral dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of neutral atoms. The inertial mass is derived and shown to be equal to the gravitational mass. The vibrational mechanism for both gravitational and inertial mass causes the magnitude of both masses to decay over time. The inertial force has a non-radial R x (R x A) term which makes possible certain observed non-Newtonian inertial gyroscopic motions. Arguments are made that this derived law of inertia is superior to Newton's Law of Inertia (F = ma), because it is properly based on relative coordinates, contains a second term that describes additional observed phenomena, and contains relativistic type corrections for high velocity. Also it is superior to Einstein's field equations of General Relativity Theory which have never been able to explain the force of inertia or the centrifugal force in terms of relative coordinates nor the phenomena predicted by the second term of this work.

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Ampere?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. The Lorentz force is derived from Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.

The force of gravity is shown to be a statistical residual force due to the fourth order terms in v/c of the derived universal classical electrodynamic force between vibrating neutral dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of neutral atoms. The derived gravitational force has the customary radial term plus a new non-radial term. From the radial term the gravitational mass is defined in terms of electrodynamic parameters. The non-radial term causes the orbits of the planets about the sun to spiral about a circular orbit giving the appearance of an elliptical orbit tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun. The vibrational mechanism causing the gravitational force slowly decays over time giving rise to the expansion of the planets (including the earth) and moons in our solar system, the cosmic background radiation, Hubble?s red shifts versus distance due to gravitational red shifting, Tifft?s quantized red shifts as a type of Bode?s law, and Tifft?s measured decay of the magnitude of red shifts over time. Arguments will be given that this derived law of gravity is superior to Newton?s Universal Law of Gravitation and Einstein?s General Relativity Theory.

The force of inertial is shown to be a statistical residual force due to the acceleration terms in the derived universal electrodynamic force between vibrating neutral dipoles consisting of atomic electrons vibrating with respect to protons in the nucleus of neutral atoms. The inertial mass is derived and shown to be equal to the gravitational mass. The vibrational mechanism for both gravitational and inertial mass causes the magnitude of both masses to decay over time. The inertial force has a non-radial term , which causes certain observed non-Newtonian inertial gyroscopic motions that will be demonstrated. Arguments will be given that this derived law of inertia is superior to Newton's Law of Inertia.

Common Sense Science offers all of the CSS Newsletter lead articles for download, without the correspondence and supplemental material in the Newsletter.

A classical electrodynamic geometrical packing model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the derived universal electrodynamic force law. This model incorporates the physical structures of electrons from the classical electrodynamic string model of elementary particles. From the physical characteristics of real electrons this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number and orientation of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon simple ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. This model of the atom, based on finite-size ring electrons, gives rise to a new mechanism for the binding of atoms to form molecules. Instead of valence point electrons performing orbits about two nuclei to bind them together, stationary ring electrons bind atoms together electrically and magnetically. Each electron acts as a small ring magnet. From a magnetic basis the model explains the reason why the periodic table has only seven periods. The new classical model predicts new states for the stationary electron in the extreme ultraviolet not possible for orbiting point electrons in quantum type theories. NASA rocket space probes found 64 lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen in the extreme ultraviolet in perfect agreement with the predictions of this new ring model of the hydrogen atom. Arguments are given showing the superiority of the classical model of the atom over relativistic quantum models.

A classical electrodynamic geometrical packing model for the structure of the nucleus is developed based on the derived universal electrodynamic force law. This model incorporates the physical structures of electrons, protons, and neutrons from the classical electrodynamic string model of elementary particles. From the physical characteristics of these real particles this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number and orientation of electrons and protons that will pack into the various physical shells of the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Table of the Nuclides. In this model neutrons inside the nucleus polarize into electrons and protons. The model accurately predicts the nuclear "magic numbers" indicative of nuclear shell structure, the spin of all nuclides, and explains the physical origin of the liquid drop features of nuclides. Arguments are given showing the superiority of this classical model of the nucleus over relativistic quantum and liquid drop models.

The evidence for the electrodynamic origin of life in organic molecules such as DNA and proteins is presented. It is based on the same type of approach used by Schroedinger that lead to the discovery of DNA. Experimentally the Orgone Laboratory Life-Energy field meter measures the absorption of longitudinal radiation on any object put near its short-range detector. Measurements of the absorption of longitudinal radiation by plants, fruits and vegetables, and animals including man in various experiments seem to correlate well with the expected life energy of those bodies. Dr. Antoine Priore of France has demonstrated on thousands of animals the healing power of longitudinal waves from his giant plasma tube. From previous work on the universal electrodynamic force, it is claimed that longitudinal waves are absorbed on large chiral organic molecules causing them to vibrate longitudinally like a long spring. This longitudinal vibration causes an organic molecule to be "alive". According to electrodynamics all vibrational motion must decay by radiating. The consumption of food by organisms provides a fresh supply of longitudinally vibrating molecules that share their longitudinal vibrational energy in order to maintain the longitudinal vibrations of the DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules of the organism.

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Ampere?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical

properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of an action-at-a-distance force. The Lorentz force is derived from Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Amp?re?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experimental data showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. The Lorentz force is derived as a consequence of Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Ampere?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation and radiation reaction. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. The Lorentz force is derived from Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamics, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.

A new electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental em-pirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Ampere's generalized law, Faraday's law, Lorentz's law, and Lenz's law assuming Galilean invariance and noting that both the superposition principle for electromagnetic fields and the point-particle as-sumption assumed by Maxwell are experimentally false. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law contains extensions to Weber's force law that account for gravity, inertia, relativistic effects including radiation, and also the non-radial terms that explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents. The derived force law satisfies Newton's third law, conservation of energy and momentum, and Mach's Principle. Galilean invariance is shown to mathematically require that the electromagnetic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance and is used to derive the Lorentz force law. From the per-spective of the derived electromagnetic potential between two moving charges, it appears that the 'relativistic' corrections to the Coulomb static potential are just geometrical terms that take into account the effective distance between the charges due to the corkscrew motion of the moving charges and the induced field effects of Lenz's law.

The notion that the Universe is electrodynamic in nature is developed, by taking into account the finite size of elementary particles and the feedback effects of their self-fields due to that finite size. This has led to the derivation of a new universal electrodynamic force law from the empirical laws of electrodynamics that holds for all scale sizes. It replaces the current relativistic theories of the electrodynamic, gravitational, strong nuclear and weak nuclear force. This new universal force leads to a new theory of elementary particles based on the combinatorial geometry of intertwining continuous charge fibers forming a toroidal ring. This new theory of elementary particles leads in turn to the formation of a new theory of the nucleus and the atom that is also based on combinatorial geometry. The bonding of atoms to form molecules is explained in terms of the coupling of the magnetic fields of electrons. The structure of complex organic molecules such as DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, sugars, and bacteria are explained in terms of spiraling intertwining fibers. These same spiraling fibers are able to explain the properties of the solar system better than Newton?s Universal Law of Gravitation and Einstein?s General Theory of Relativity. Hubble Space Telescope pictures of ring and spiral galaxies record their fiber structure.

Foundations of Science is the quarterly journal of Common Sense Science, founded by David L. Bergman and Dr. Charles W. (Bill) Lucas in 1998. It features physical models of elementary particles and atomic structures and force and gravitational formulations, all based on electrodynamics. The editors present their finding from a Christian worldview.

Common Sense Science offers all of the CSS Newsletter lead articles for download, without the correspondence and supplemental material in the Newsletter.

At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the electron, proton, and neutron were discovered and identified experimentally. From cosmic ray experiments and accelerator experiments, this initially satisfying list of elementary particles has been expanded to include six spin-? leptons, nine spin-? baryons, four spin-3/2 baryons, twenty spin-0 pseudo-scalar mesons, and seven spin-1 vector mesons, plus the antiparticles of each.

The first theoretical approach to order all of these particles in a systematic way in terms of certain internal symmetry properties was the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. It was based upon six hypothetical unobserved spin-? particles called ?quarks.? All of the heavy elementary particles called hadrons are formed from these quarks. In this model the strong interaction is mediated# by the exchange of gluons, the electromagnetic interaction is mediated by the exchange of photons, and the weak interaction is mediated by the exchange of W ? and Zo particles.

In the Standard Model, use of the Higgs mechanism for symmetry breaking allowed the electromagnetic and weak force to be combined into the electroweak force. In a similar way the Higgs mechanism allows the strong interaction to be unified with the electroweak. An attempt to unify all of the forces in nature, including the gravitational force, has lead to a string theory of 26 dimensions that can be represented by a ten-dimensional rotating string theory assuming supersymmetry. One of these dimensions is time.

Both the Standard Model and the Superstring Model of Elementary Particles are closely integrated with cosmology and the Big Bang Theory of the origin of the universe. This approach represents the earth and the universe as very old compared to Biblical revelation. Furthermore, there is no role for God in creating or daily sustaining the universe. The universe supposedly came about as a chance quantum fluctuation that produced the ?big bang.? According to this approach, the design of the universe is inherent in the properties of the elementary particles that resulted from the ?big bang.? All matter and life itself are built from these elementary particles. Their inherent properties are supposed to determine the design of all matter and the nature of living things.

A physical Geometrical Packing Model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal Ring Model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explains the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the Periodic Table has only seven periods. The Toroidal Model is extended in this article to describe the emission spectra of hydrogen and other atoms. Use is made of some of the authors? standing wave experiments in large toroidal springs. The resulting model accurately predicts the same emission spectral lines as the Quantum Model including the fine structure and hyperfine structure. Moreover it goes beyond the Dirac Quantum Model of the atom to predict 64 new lines or transitions in the extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of hydrogen that have been confirmed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Physics Laboratory at Berkeley from its NASA rocket experiment data.

?Who hath believed our report?? Sometimes we are asked what others say about Common Sense Science. Many want to know if our theory of matter is credible but lack confidence in their ability to make the evaluation themselves. This report identifies scientific criteria and includes an overview to enable an objective evaluation of CSS credibility.

A physical geometrical packing model for the structure of the atom was developed previously based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons experimentally determined by Compton this work derived, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation were based upon simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explained the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the Periodic Table has only seven periods.

The toroidal model was then extended to describe the emission spectra of hydrogen and other atoms. Use was made of some of the author?s standing-wave experiments with large toroidal springs. The resulting model accurately predicted the same emission spectral lines as the Quantum Model including the fine structure and hyperfine structure. Moreover it went beyond the Dirac and Bohr quantum models of the atom to predict 64 new lines or transitions in the extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of hydrogen that have been confirmed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Physics Lab at Berkeley from its NASA rocket experiment data.

A physical geometrical packing model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon Joseph?s simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explains the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the periodic table has only seven periods.

The same geometrical packing model is extended to describe the physical geometrical packing of protons and neutrons in the physical shells of the nucleus. It accurately predicts the nuclear ?magic numbers? indicative of nuclear shell structure as well as suggesting the physical origin of the nuclide spin and the liquiddrop features of nuclides.

A physical Geometrical Packing Model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon Joseph?s simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explains the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the periodic table has only seven periods.

The same Geometrical Packing Model is extended to describe the physical geometrical packing of protons and neutrons in the physical shells of the nucleus. It accurately predicts the nuclear ?magic numbers? indicative of nuclear shell structure as well as suggesting the physical origin of the nuclide spin and the liquiddrop features of nuclides.

Principles of logic and criteria for acceptance of theories in science are presented. According to logic, whose purpose is to guide science toward truth, Maxwell?s Equations, Einstein?s Special and General Relativity Theories, Quantum Mechanics, the Bohr and Dirac theories of the atom, the Quantum Electrodynamics Theory of elementary particles and Newton?s Universal Law of Gravitation are not acceptable theories for science.

A new foundation for modern physics is presented that is based on the fundamental empirical laws of Classical Electrodynamics for finite-size elastic elementary particles in the shape of a toroidal ring and composed of plasma filaments. Using combinatorial geometry, threedimensional physical models of the atom and nucleus have been developed that describe the Periodic Table of the Elements and nuclear shell structure better than quantum theories. Blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, and atomic emission spectra are explained in terms of toroidal shaped electrons. New spectral lines for hydrogen in the extreme ultraviolet (not predicted by quantum theories) are predicted and found experimentally by the Berkeley Extreme Ultraviolet Physics laboratory from rocket-based experiments in space.

A gravitational force law obtained from corrected Classical Electrodynamics is superior to that of Newton (even with Einstein?s general relativistic corrections incorporated) as shown by analysis of Solar System data.

Weber's force law for real finite-size elastic particles is here derived from the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Amp?re's law, Faraday's law, and Lenz's law, assuming Galilean invariance. The rearrangement of the elastic charge density within the finite-size moving particle to produce a minimum in potential energy under the stress of induction forces is seen to be the physical origin of so-called ?relativistic effects'. The derived version of Weber's force law appears to be fully ?relativistic' without any reference to Einstein's special relativity theory. It satisfies Newton's third law, conservation of energy and Mach's principle. Furthermore it incorporates finite-size particle effects, such as self-induced fields, which are missing from point- particle theories such as Maxwell's equations, Einstein's special relativity theory, and quantum mechanics. The most general form of the force law appears capable of describing fully ?relativistic' radiation and radiation-reaction effects as well as many other higher order time derivative effects. From this derivation it appears that Einstein's special relativity theory, as well as the use of retardation for non-radiation fields in electrodynamics, are not proper physical theories, but rather mathematical theories cleverly contrived to imitate the self-field effects of real finite-size elastic particles to order v in the Galilean transformation.

Reprinted in *Galilean Electrodynamics*, V14, N1, pp. 3-10 (2003).

Christians believe that there are two sources of information available for understanding the universe, i.e. revelations from God included in the sacred scriptures and the scientific method employing logic fully for the purpose of affirming or denying hypotheses. A careful study of the scriptures describing the original creation, the second or new creation, visitations and manifestations of God on earth, and visions of God in heaven on his throne seem to indicate that God uses electrodynamic means, i.e. fire, lightning, thunder, light, heat, etc. to exert his power and to accomplish his will. From the scientific point of view as shown in the "New Physics" being developed by Tom Barnes, Dave Bergman, and Charles Lucas the universe is purely electromagnetic in nature. Thus both the scripture and science affirm that it is probable that God created the universe, daily sustains the universe, and performs miracles using only electromagnetic means.

Accelerator scattering experiments have shown that real elementary particles have finite size and and an internal elastic charge distribution. By explicitly wrinting th ethe fundamental laws of electrodynamics in a form showing theself-fileds induced by the motion of real finite size particles, one can obtain the so-called "relativistic effects" normally associated with relativity theory for the fields of the particle at high velocity. These effects are produced by the self fields of the particle changing the shape of the particle from spherical to elliptical. By explicity taking into account the finite size of the proton an dneutron in the nucleus and the electrons bound to it, one can predict the gross structure of the periodic table of the elements using the techniques of combinatorial geomentry to determine how the electrons pack in layers about the nucleus. Thus the theory of electrodynamics for real finite size particles is able to predict results similar to those obtained from the theory of electrodynamics for point particles combined with the theories of quantum mechanics and relativity theory. However, these latter theories rely on assumptions that are unphysical. On the basis of simplicity and the use of assumptions in agreement with reality instead of idealizations, the point particle theory of electrodynamics as embodied in Maxwell's equations, the theory of relativity, and the theory of quantum mechanics should be discarded from science in favor of the theory of electrodynamics of real finite size particles.