Nikola Tesla, the discoverer of the cosmic rays, stated that their velocity was greater than the speed of light. But he was not able to calculate just what it was. We will do so here. We commence with the following observation: To construct an equation showing the tremendous energy involved, we must have either (1) a great mass for the proton, or (2) a velocity greatly in excess of c. It cannot be done using c and the bare proton mass. Since no bremsstrahlung is observed when the proton comes to rest, we must conclude that it has its bare mass and the velocity is way in excess of c.
Recall New Year, 2000? Everybody was excited about the arrival of “the new millennium”. Advertising on
TV was full of it, so was radio and the print media as well as the general populace. “The new millennium,
the new millennium, the new millennium” – that’s all you heard. The only trouble was, the year 2000 was
NOT the start of the new millennium but the end of the old. The new millennium starts with the year 2001.
Was everybody wrong? You bet. Has “everybody” been wrong before? Yup. What about the flat earth, or
Ptolemy’s epicycles, or the earth as the center of the universe? We might also mention phlogiston and the
luminiferous aether (There are poor souls still hanging on to that one as well as mass-less photons).
Thanks to Coulomb, we have measurable electrostatic and magnetic fields that stand alone. That is,
when they are not in motion.
Given motion, the two fields form a union - orthogonally to each other - which we call an electromagnetic
field (e.m. for short). Nieto & Goldhaber, experimenters (among others), determined the approximate
mass of these fields. (See Scientific American, May, 1976, The Mass of the Photon, by Nieto &
Goldhaber) . As their experiment progressed over time, they refined their technique such that the result
became progressively smaller - and eventually approached very close to the figure given here. There
were anomalies of the curve caused by their examining other fields than the coulomb fields. These should