A basic theory is described that leads to classical explanations of Modern Physics. The basic theory is that magnetism is due to electric dipoles inside atomic nuclei and inside electrons. For example in parallel current carrying wires, the dipoles are produced by the current driving field in each wire causing a transverse elliptization of the circular orbit of a small charged particle around an oppositely charged central core so that there is a displacement of centers of negative and positive charge forming an electric dipole. Thus parallel current carrying wires are attracted to each other by the billions of small attractively oriented transverse electric dipoles in the billions of atomic nuclei and free electrons in each cubic millimeter of the wires. Thus collinear dipoles along radii of planets and stars, produced by their spinning account for their gravitational force.
Light itself need not be produced by instantaneous transitions between energy levels and then propagated as a wave or photon or a probabilistic photon with a velocity equal to the speed of light. Instead, light or radiation in general, may be regarded as the effect of oscillations of charged particles in a source that produce at a distance in-phase oscillations of charged particles in the primary receiver, first inside atomic nuclei, then after a delay, oscillations of electrons, e.g., of free electrons or of bound electrons where the widening of orbits of bound atomic electrons leads to their ejection. The proposed mechanism to produce such light transmission is similar to Maxwell's changing electric fields causing magnetic fields and changing magnetic fields causing electric fields. In Maxwell's theory, these effects propagate as a spherical wave in vacuous space. In the proposed theory these changes occur inside atomic nuclei due to cumulative instantaneous forces at a distance.
The Higgs boson and graviton supposedly exchanged between pieces of neutral matter give matter the property of mass and the gravitational attraction between masses that cause matter to clump together in stars, planets, moons etc. We are proposing another rationale based on the spinning orbiting nature of stars planets and their moons. Electric dipoles are produced by spinning orbiting astronomical bodies which give rise to their magnetic and gravitational fields.
A survey of light speed measurements suggests that light speed can be calibrated to be equal to the standard speed of light assumption for distances up to 12000 miles about, but that for greater distances, such as that between the Earth and spacecraft, the results are not so clear. Also that our knowledge of the speed of light delay from stars is confounded with the speed of light delay between lenses and with the effects of light intensity at the lens or ccd array etc. Thus, the actual speed of light delay from astronomical distances is not as obvious as commonly believed.
It is helpful first to explain magnetic moments of electrons and atoms in terms of electrostatic dipoles. The forces producing the velocities of electrons in orbit also produce radial charge polarization in the electrons; the proximity of the nucleus r meters away, inhibits the magnitude of the dipole in the orbiting electron. This is analagous to the inhibition of transverse dipoles as in the nuclei and free electrons of parallel current carrying wires. That is, there is a transverse force between nucleus and electron that inhibits the tendency of the orbiting negative charge inside the electron to become more elliptical. The dipole length increases as r increases. So the dipole in the orbiting electron of mass, m, in the ground orbit of hydrogen is erv/c, where mvr = h. This dipole then is equal to the Bohr magneton, eh/2mc, which is the unit in which the magnetic interaction of atoms with applied magnetic forces is usually expressed.
Since Maxwell's 1864 paper, the theory of Light has involved ever stranger, more non-intuitive assumptions: Maxwell hypothesized a vacuous space filled with invisible wheels and ball bearings, like vortices in a gas, but utterly massless, and with the density of iron! Later, massless, even probabilistic particles (photons) transferring discontinuous changes in energy, time dilation, space contraction and curvature, one dimensional objects (?strings)' vibrating in 10 dimensions, etc. The mystic, religious appeal of these concepts, appealing to the right side of our brain, is undeniable. But, annoying to the left side of the brain, is the continual addition of properties of light-carrying particles and of the space or spacetime continuum between source and receiver. It is reminiscent of the ever increasing number of Ptolemaic epicycles that were added to explain planetary motions. The Ptolemaic theory, which was intended to reduce and simplify the chaos of raw data, became as extensive as the raw data itself- until the comfortable, but incorrect assumption of a central Earth was replaced with the correct premise of a central Sun. A similar correction to the theory of Light and electromagnetic radiation is long overdue.
An explanation is proposed of a newly detected force between charges on a metal foil and a large steady electric current in a wire. The explanation is given in terms of charge polarization within electrons.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 56, Issue 3, March 1985, pp. 415-417
According to Gulko, element nuclei are created by a succession of neutron 'captures'. Initially (at very high temperatures as immediately after the 'big bang' inception of the universe) a hydrogen proton captures a neutron on each of two opposite sides. Beta emission of an electron becomes another orbiting electron. The capture of another neutron produces helium.