Physics S: Electricity
Faraday versus Amp?re: electrical conduction is not a flux of an electrical fluid (or a stream of charged particles) but a propagation of a polarization state of adjacent electric dipoles According to the prevailing quantum theory metallic bonding is an interplay of the free valence electrons that constitute the so-called electron cloud and the ion cores of the lattice atoms. The electrons allegedly drift in a random manner through the lattice of ion cores. The bonding model explains metals as a lattice of ion cores held together by a gas of free electrons! The electron gas cannot hold together the ion cores that are repelling each other! On no conditions the electron gas constitutes the electric current, namely a stream or flux of charged particles. Electrical conduction is not a transport of something along the wire. Nature has chosen the wave as a means of propagating states with a minimum transport of masses and charges. Case studies show that electrical conduction depends on crystal structure. This is not explainable in terms of the model of drifting electrons.